Chapter 3




History of Church

Let us now turn to the tenets and theology of the Christ Apostolic Church, which is the parent body of the Bethel churches for without a good understanding of the CAC no one can understand the uniqueness of Bethel in the mist of CAC, its raison d’être and its functions or indeed structure. The Christ Apostolic Church became a functional and registered independent church in 1941 due to the ministration of its greatest evangelist Joseph Ayo Babalola. It had however started as a previous homogenous unit in 1918 as Faith Tabernacle whose main doctrine was divine healing. It metamorphosed into The Apostolic Church in the early 1930s due mainly to the need to call the Apostolic Church of Wales[1] to serve as supervisory body to an Independent African church within a colonial setting. In the early 1930s the colonialists could not understand how Africans could set up their own church and run it without help from outside the continent especially if their practices were controversial and crisis ridden The colonialists were not interested in doctrine or indeed theology. It was not their interest to determine whether CAC, Faith Tabernacle or indeed TAC were wrong or right. As far as they were concerned they could even be quakers or shakers for all they cared. What was important is that the natives did not feed the public with wrong doctrines that can lead to unrest and precipitate mayhem and disorderliness. It is amazing though that the earlier independent church, the Cherubim and Seraphim, and many others, were left alone and not monitored. This was simply because they were quiet and did not make too much noise since they did not cause revolutionary revivals as the Faith Tabernacle did in 1930.  The key to understanding the history of the CAC lies in the Oke Oye revivals which began in July 1930 and continued unabated till September after which smaller and scattered ones occurred over mainly the western part of the country and went on a few years more. The revivals were impromptu and unplanned, highly charged with several miracles happening simultaneously and with a flavour of water she would baffle theologians for years to come- the use of water for Christian ministration, which is strange to the Bible or indeed Christian practice over the ages. This was new, but the water of Oke- Oye stream was blessed by Babalola so much so that anyone who drank the water instantly had miracle of healing or sometimes death, depending on if he/she is praying for deliverance or he/she is an unrepentant force trying to gauge the power of God. In the words of the present President of the CAC who mentioned a synod meeting of the Faith Tabernacle from where the revivals began (first mentioned by the British Peel who obtained his own sources from magazines and newspapers published at the time including Akede Eko, The Yoruba News, Western Equitorial Africa Church Magazine and Diocese of Lagos Synod Reports to name a few.) [2]  


The meeting was scheduled to hold on 9-10/7/30 at Ilesha with twenty four items on the agenda.

Number one on the agenda was about whether a Christian should marry more than one wife. Having settled with this, that it was not proper, they moved on to the second point on the agenda which was whether a Christian should use medicines for healing or not? This was very controversial, and it came up with the arguments. The God who sat in heaven saw the love of these dedicated saints who would want the people to know that He is still alive, and He immediately came to their rescue. An incident of one death occurred which distracted the attention of the attendants at the meeting. The Spirit of God moved Babalola to arrest the situation. He prayed in the name of Jesus Christ and the dead was instantly brought back to life! The news of this miraculous event spread around like a panoramo. People rushed by thousands to Oke Ooye, the venue of the meeting and the sight of the incident of the miracle of raising the dead. It was just like a dream as hundreds of people were instantly delivered from their incurable disease. The meeting was put to an abrupt end for ever as God vindicated Himself by miracle and healings.

The spirit of God descended upon Babalola without a measure. The blinds were made to see, the lames walked, the deaf heard and evil spirits came out crying. The magicians and those who possessed dangerous weapons of black power submitted them freely. Those who came with evil spirits and sorcery powers fell flat before God’s power. Dew was falling on people from heaven even during the day time when the sun was brightly shining. Hundreds of people received baptism of the Holy Spirit. All the bushes around were brushed by the feet of the surging crowds who thronged the revival ground day and night. Hundreds of thousands repented of their sins and accepted the Lord Jesus Christ as their Saviour.

Within a week, it was estimated that over a million souls attended the revival and were greatly blessed. Babalola used to minister to people all day long and prayed throughout the nights, for the reinforcement of power. People walked miles on foot to attend the revival from the four corners of the country. Those who were in attendance comprised of all the classes of the people one could think of in the society. People all over West Africa and European countries came to witness the revival.

Everybody thought the world was going to an end; people were greeting themselves good luck in readiness for Christ’s Second Advent. If Christ were to come at that time only few people would be left behind as faith was so high and the people repented of their sins and got saved.

All the existing churches at Ilesha Township were almost emptied as their members trooped to the revival ground at Oke Ooye all the week days including Sundays to receive blessings from the servant of God. The church leaders could not lay their hands on their members to bring them back. This started to generate bitterness, but it was to no avail as God’s power moved beyond human control. People who came from different places went back to herald the good news. Some took the blessed water to their sick ones at home, and after drinking it miracles of healing resulted.’[3]


The years after 1930 saw the gradual organization of the converted from the Oke- Oye revivals into The Apostolic Church but before then most converts simply joined any church of their choice thereby helping to swell the number of Christians worshipping in Nigeria and beyond.


Peel said of this number of Christians


This is most marked in Ilesha-Ife itself, and can be further illustrated from the attendances at Holy Trinity Church, Omofe Ilesha, the second of the two big Anglican churches in the town. The years before show a steady rise in the Sunday attendance, which continued (despite the talk of emptied churches) through the main revival year of 1930 to reach a grand peak in 1931? We read of Babatope wanting to start a new congregation, but being restrained, in 1931. But in the same year the new missionaries of the Apostolic Church came out, and by 1932, with the permission of the Owa and the District Office, they began to organize the new Aladaru converts, some of whom, to judge from the Omofe figures, had already been attending that church. From 1932 to 1935, as the apostolic churches got themselves established, the figures dropped each year, until, with the late thirties, they began to recover again. But the Great Revival of Babalola and his associates made a permanent mark on churches of all kinds’[4].


But in 1941 after the great schism, the CAC exited as a separate entity and fully recognized by the then colonial government as such. Its formation and name was done on 13 July 1941. Since then it had moved into considerable church planting processes. Church planting in the CAC is performed by lay and non lay members, including the clergy who feels motivated. Most members of the CAC are committed to the church for they feel this is the last church of the last days. How else can you explain the outpouring of the Holy Spirit with all its manifestations, miracles and supernaturalism except that God favours the church? Hence no one seems interested in contemplating another schism or break away from the CAC. Hence the Bethel section of the CAC seems to be secure in the CAC for now for why would it break away from such a body that seems so favoured by God with signs and wonders following. Indeed Peel observed in 1968


A survey in 1958 concluded that the Christ Apostolic church was the third largest church in Western Nigeria, with 83,000 attenders. In 1965 this would be over 100,000.[5]p 113.


It was a fast growing church in those years and was responsible mainly in encouraging stubborn fetish Yoruba people in becoming converted to Christianity.

Let us now examine carefully the practices of the CAC



The term aladura is derived from Yoruba and simply means one who prays. It was coined to describe those who engaged in unusually long prayers in the early days of Yoruba Christianity and around the 1920-30s. The very first group to be recognized as prayer people were the Cherubim and Seraphim group which began in 1925 who were known  in those early days to spend sometimes up to twelve hours or more praying for the sick. Till today the leader of the Cherubim and Seraphim Church is called Baba Aladura (father of prayers), a title first worn by the very first (or one of the first) leader(s) of the church- Moses Orimolade. There was no connection whatsoever between the revivals of 1930s and the Cherubim and Seraphim Society or organisation which latter became obviously non-evangelical after the death of the revered Baba Aladura Moses Orimolade in 1933. Hence the broad term Aladura is simply no longer acceptable for it now signifies any one who wears white garment, with minimal emphasis on the ability to pray. Strangely enough the CAC does not even wear white garments and has never done so. At a time, the use of the praise Hebrew word ‘Halleluya’ was also the defining character of the ‘Aladura’. Today most neo-pentecostal English speaking groups use ‘halleluyah’ very often to include the occultly Pentecostal within the rank and file of the pure non-pentecostal evangelicals.


In 1950 J.A. Aina, who had introduced Faith Tabernacle to Ibadan, launched a plan for an Aladura union to mark the 25th anniversary of the movement in Ibadan. The Christ Apostolic Church, largest segment by far of the Aladura movement, rejected the ‘superficial unity’ of ‘a sort of Federal Union of all the Aladuras’, for it did not want to let go its ‘grip of the Apostolic truth’. Some members, indeed, object to the epithet ‘aladura’ for it has come to signify any kind of small prophet. There is in existence a Pentecostal Union of the Christ Apostolic Church with some others, and ‘pentecostal’ is how the Christ Apostolic Church likes to be labeled. The General Council decided that reunion would not be sought with any church which was not ‘really Pentecostal inwardly, or reborn totally.’ Steady progress has been made at communicating these doctrines to the church members’ p 148.


There is nothing in the tenets of CAC or indeed practice or doctrine that is radically different from many modern Pentecostal groups in the entire world. This is why it is more apt to separate the Aladura into its various groups as Emmanuel Eni first did. Most of these so called Aladura are white garment churches which suggest cultism. The Cherubim and Seraphim have profound angelology and very limited demonology and Christology and they must wear white garment for their services.[6] This practice does not exist in the CAC.


CAC Pentecostalism[7]

On CAC pneumatology according to Peel


The Christ apostolic doctrine is much more formally Pentecostal, but in practice, as people actually say their prayers, the persons of God the Father, and especially Christ, have much greater prominence. The appeal of the doctrine of Christ’s Sacrifice has been noted, and all prayers said in the church conclude with the words l’oruko Jesu Kristi, Oluwa wa, ‘in the name of Jesus Christ, Our Lord’, following the injunction ‘Whatsoever ye ask in my name, it shall be granted unto you.’ Christ, having been man as well as God is much the more appropriate vehicle for prayers, sometimes seen, perhaps, as lower than God the Father, the all-powerful Oba.’[8]


CAC is a pentecostal church par excellence. The fact that it made itself into an African independent church should not becloud that important point for its parent body is the still The Apostolic Church of Wales which nurtured it in doctrine until the break away of 1939. To lump the CAC together with the Cherubim and Seraphim whose doctrines have never been evangelical as Peel did say, is to do injustice to the origin and development of the CAC. CAC is decidedly evangelical and not a cult. It is profoundly Pentecostal and also believes in divine healing.

Aside from Montanism[9] which came up in the 2nd century after Christ in the church, the charismatic gifts of the Spirit disappeared and from the church (or so we think)[10] only to emerge in early 1900s. The group that managed this emergence has been labeled Pentecostal because of the similarity of its manifestations of the Holy Spirit to Pentecost. The pentecostalist appeal to the gifts of the Holy Spirit as enumerated by Paul in his letter to the Corinthians is the proof text.


Now to each one the manifestation of the Spirit is given for the common good. To one there is given through the Spirit the message of wisdom, to another the message of knowledge by means of the same Spirit, to another faith by the same Spirit, to another gifts of healing by that one Spirit, to another miraculous powers, to another prophecy, to another distinguishing between spirits, to another speaking in different kinds of tongues, and to still another the interpretation of tongues. All these are the work of one and the same Spirit, and he gives them to each one, just as he determines.1Cor 12:7-11.


And in the church God has appointed first of all apostles, second prophets, third teachers, then workers of miracles, also those having gifts of healing, those able to help others, those with gifts of administration, and those speaking in different kinds of tongues’ 1 Cor 12:28.


Let us now enumerate the gifts of the Spirit

  1. Message of wisdom
  2. Message of knowledge
  3. Faith
  4. Healing
  5. Miracles
  6. Prophecy
  7. Distinguishing between spirits
  8. Glossolalia[11] (speaking in tongues)
  9. Interpretation of tongues


Then the next section on gifts personalizes the gifts for worker and provides a basis for classification of workers in the church as follows

    • Apostles
    • Prophets
    • Teachers
    • Miracle workers
    • Healing
    • Helpers
    • Administrators
    • Speakers of tongues

The workers may have more than one of the gifts above. Thus for example, the apostle should have gifts of miracles, and possibly faith and healing as gifts. Apostles[12] usually do not posses ability to prophesy (although Joanah had a modicum of this but lost it when she began to exhibit signs of an apostle), and many do not even speak in tongues. It is rare to have an Apostle who is also a prophet.

The nine gifts of the spirit in Church doctrine is just as important as the fruits of the Spirit as enumerated by Paul in Gal 5:22-23.


But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faithfulness, gentleness and self control. Against such things there is no law.


Notice that the church (CAC) teaches nine gifts versus nine fruits of the Spirit. It is a fundamental teaching in both TAC and CAC. It is also clear that the function of the gifts differ from those of fruits. While the gifts are given to you without you deserving it (you can ask of course) you normally bear the fruits if you have the Spirit. The fruits are the symptoms of finding yourself Spirit filled. The mechanism of one is different from another. For example the gifts come after the Baptism of the Holy Spirit and can occur in an unrepentant sinner, but certainly not in an unbeliever. But the fruits come only after repentance which is represented by water baptism (see below) and a conscious turning away from sin. It is the effect of the first infilling of the Holy Spirit through water baptism that is referred to as being born of water (Jn 3:5). An unrepentant sinner, no matter how much gifts he can manifest, cannot manifest a single fruit of the Sprit. This is simply a derivation from the definitions of the words ‘gift’ and ‘fruit.’ The qualification for gifts can therefore be garnered to be Baptism by fire (Spirit) but fruit comes from baptism of water (repentance). This distinction has been a problem in the CAC for years for some believes that once you have received the baptism of the Holy Spirit with outward manifestation of its gifts, you have to manifest the fruits. Today the phenomenonology of slaying in the Spirit first popularized in popular ministry by Kathrine Kulman and other American preachers in the early 20th century is now well known in television ministry in which the preacher simply touches or blows air and the individual falls down. No one in his right senses can say that such means baptism of Holy Spirit or indeed repentance.[13] Such is what happens a lot of times when a tarry prayer meeting for receiving Holy Spirit or laying on of hands for baptism of the Holy Spirit occurs. It has no significance unless the individual follows up with consistently seeking the face of God or indeed the Holy Spirit with genuine repentance.


CAC Doctrines

The following is placed on baptismal card for adult baptism. In the CAC there is no room for paedobaptism. This is 13 point tenets of the CAC which every CAC member is expected to believe, summarized.

  1. The Trinity
  2. Repentance and being born again is a must for all humans without which they will end in eternal damnation of hell.
  3. Virgin birth, sinlessness, death of atonement, resurrection, victory, ascension and intercession of Jesus Christ for the believer. His second coming to earth to institute the millennium.
  4. Justification and sanctification of the believer for the finished work of Christ.
  5. Baptism of the Holy Spirit for the believer and signs that follow.
  6. Nine gifts of the Spirit for comfort, teaching and growth of the Church which is the body of Christ.
  7. Baptism by immersion and the Lord’s supper.
  8. The Bible was written by inspiration from God.
  9. Church government involves apostles, prophets, evangelists, pastors, teachers and deacons.
  10. Any one can fall from grace and be lost eternally.
  11. Tithing is a must for all Christians.
  12. Absolute belief in divine healing through the agency of the power of the Holy spirit for the sick during periods of illness, disease, epidemics, sores, dangers and sudden harm without the use of medicine or having faith in the physician but faith  in God alone for healing (Is 53:5, Mk 16:18, Jas 5:14-15).
  13. Belief in God Jehovah Jireh to provide for his people in times of need without borrowing and also for believers to give alms and loans without interest (Phil 4:19, Rom 13:8, 1 Tim 6:6-10, Ps 15:5).


Ordo salutis

Wayne Grudem the famous systematic theologian from Trinity College, enumerates his ordo salutis in his book


The order of salvation

  1. Election (God’s choice of people to be saved)
  2. Gospel call (proclaiming the message of the gospel
  3. Regeneration (being born again)
  4. Conversion (faith and repentance)
  5. Justification (right legal standing)
  6. Adoption (membership in God’s family
  7. Sanctification (right conduct of Life)
  8. Perseverance (remaining a Christian)
  9. Death (going to be with the Lord)
  10. Glorification (receiving a resurrection body[14]


There is no doubt that the order of salvation in the CAC doctrine is same as most other evangelical groups. It was taken almost verbatim from the Apostolic Church whose church doctrine influenced the theoretical formulation of the tenets of the CAC but differ only in practices. Thus it is expected in the CAC that a person is required to be born again in order to become a converted Christian and expect to go to heaven in a conscientia salutis of a definite assurance of salvation. This is expected to occur before Baptism of the Holy Spirit for which the church is very well known. The CAC even acknowledges the existence of a need for sanctification theoretically but hardly preaches it as a definite post-conversion experience as some Pentecostal groups do, such as the Apostolic faith, but does not expect it to be a definite spiritual experience by the faithful. Sanctification is expected to occur before Baptism of the Holy Spirit and conversion and repentance are synomymous with being born again. But in practice, just as was mentioned for Joanah, the usual method of preaching is to request individuals to receive the Holy Spirit in tarry meetings. The import of the initial conversion seems to be lost in modern CACism. What went wrong? Nothing went wrong except that the system has become hardened as a result of secondary influences which was the same situation in the late 1st century Christianity that prompted only John the Apostle to remember that Jesus had mentioned to the established religious groups of his age that they must be born again in order to enter the kingdom of God (Jon 3:1-4).[15]

Despite the importance attached to being born again in modern evangelical Christianity, its import seems to be lost in established church systems. Any discussion on Jn 3:3 ‘I tell you the truth, no one can see the kingdom of God unless he is born again’ is simply lost in the routine of church liturgy and homilies. Its okay when the system starts but when converts give birth to their children, at what point do these children become consciously born again? Once an established church gives birth to second generation members, the import of born again becomes muffled or in most cases non existent. Hence the lack of emphasis on it today in the CAC cannot be due to doctrinal poverty but to lack of consciousness on the clergy who should be seen to emphasize it very commonly during services, homilies, prayer meetings and even tarry meeting to receive the baptism of the Holy Spirit, but this is not peculiar to the CAC. It is common in most other churches. It is good to mention though that this is not a serious problem in most other established pentecostal churches such as The Apostolic Faith, Four Square etc.  For as we mentioned earlier in the last chapter, it is very much possible for an unrepentant sinner to receive the Baptism of Holy Spirit despite ordo salutis, but then the onus is on the person to get himself properly born again by repenting of his sins. We shall discuss this in four main divisions- born again theology, history of born again doctrine in the church, the position of born again in ordo salutis. In chapter 6 we shall talk about its providence and predestination.


Born again theology
What does it mean to be born again? Jesus said


I tell you the truth, no one can enter the kingdom of God unless he is born of water and the Spirit. Flesh gives birth to flesh, but the Spirit gives birth to spirit. You should not be surprised at my saying, ‘You must be born again.’ The wind blows wherever it pleases. You hear its sound, but you cannot tell where it comes from or where it is going. So it is with everyone born of the Spirit.’ Jn 3:5-8


These words are profound and deep. What does it mean to be born of water? Some have given this various interpretations. This first theory is of course baptism; to be born of water is to be baptized. But does baptism alone give you the ability to make heaven. Baptism on it’s on without its raison d’être is meaningless. It could be the word etc. What does baptism signify in ordo salutis; that is to say what is the soteriology of baptism? Baptism refers to and signifies REPENTANCE. The Baptism of John was the baptism of repentance


And so John came, baptizing in the desert region and preaching a baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins…He (John) went into all the country preaching a baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins. Before the coming of Jesus Christ, John preached repentance and baptism to all the people of Israel…Paul said, ‘John’s baptism was a baptism of repentance. He told the people to believe in the one coming after him, that is, in Jesus.’” Mk 1:4, Lk 3:3, Ac 13:24, 19:4)


Baptism is an act which suggests and follows repentance. Water is used as a symbol to refer to baptism, while both signify repentance. But baptism also has its ritual significance and so it is wrong doctrine that says baptism is irrelevant or that baptism is not significant on its own. The CAC doctrine attaches importance to adult baptism vis-à-vis repentance. It is only a repentant person that can be baptized and hence baptism is best performed on an adult, for a child or baby cannot repent. Hence when water is used as a symbol of repentance it is correct.

But being born again does not end with repentance. There is a need for the second component of born again- that is being born of the Spirit. This pneumatological addition is not without its share of controversy. Is the birth with the Spirit whose symbol also includes fire (Mt 3:11, Lk 3:16) the same as baptism of the Holy Spirit? There is no doubt that those who coined the terminology ‘baptism with Holy Spirit ‘actually meant it to be part of being born again and to represent the Spirit rebirth component of the general born again process or a substantial part of ordo salutis. But is this true for it is true, those who are not baptized in the Holy Spirit are not therefore born again and as Jesus mentioned, they are heading for hell. Most people, even amongst the pentecostalists who believe in the Baptism of the Holy Spirit do not believe you must have the baptism in order to go to heaven. They seem to stop at baptism with water which signifies repentance alone without the second Spirit component- or so it seems. But then what is the truth?


Acts 19:1 And it came to pass, that, while Apollos was at Corinth, Paul having passed through the upper coasts came to Ephesus: and finding certain disciples,

2 He said unto them, Have ye received the Holy Ghost since ye believed? And they said unto him, We have not so much as heard whether there be any Holy Ghost.

3 And he said unto them, Unto what then were ye baptized? And they said, Unto John's baptism.

4 Then said Paul, John verily baptized with the baptism of repentance, saying unto the people, that they should believe on him which should come after him, that is, on Christ Jesus.

5 When they heard this, they were baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus.

6 And when Paul had laid his hands upon them, the Holy Ghost came on them; and they spake with tongues, and prophesied.


The above proof text presents the biblical ordo salutis which we must follow. Firstly, it is essential for salvation that you believe on[16] the Lord Jesus Christ in order to go to heaven for the Bible says clearly first you must be baptized unto Christ. That is, it must be with the name of Jesus Christ, but there is of course no harm in presenting the Trinity.


‘Whoever believes and is baptized will be saved, but whoever does not believe will be condemned. And these signs will accompany those who believe: In may name they will drive out demons; they will speak in new tongues; they will pick up snakes with their hands; and when they drink deadly poison, it will not hurt them at all; they will place their hands on sick people, and they will get well.’ Mk 16:15-18.


 To be saved all you need is to believe and be baptized. The rest is addition that supports you in your journey in life as a believer. The text above says the qualifications of those who will be saved. They must believe and be baptized and the signs must follow them. These signs do not have to be in all individuals, at least some of them will show evidence that you believe. Without these symptoms you cannot say you have believed or you are correctly baptized. It was for this same reason that the adherents of the CAC after the revivals of 1930 and beyond felt proud that they were true believers and have their conscientia salutis. But the next question would then be, do you need to obtain the Holy Spirit baptism in order to receive the signs which suggest you believe. Yes, definitely yes. For it was only at the point of Holy Spirit baptism that those who received it showed the signs of being saved which includes speaking in tongues and prophesying. The next question would then be how do you receive the Holy Ghost baptism? First you can obtain baptism by laying on of hands just as in the example of the Ephesians above. You can also receive it by faith and prayer. But it sometimes essential that a person with apostolic gift prays along with, you to receive it.


History of born again doctrine.

The import of Jn 3:3 was lost on the church long after John the Apostle had called attention to it amongst the second generation Christian of the 1st century AD for the Gospel according to John was the last of all gospels to be written, while Mark was the very first to be written. John Wesley (1703-91) preaching, in 18th century England discovered the import of the born again activity when he traveled with Moravian Christians to the new world. He later had an experience of conversion which he felt was being born again and began to preach born againism until his death. This came against established norms which taught that infant baptism signifies rebirth but the latter, as Jesus mentioned in Jn 3:3, is just not enough to earn salvation. John Wesley argued that you needed to turn away from sin consciously and ask for forgiveness with the salvation by faith alone being the essence of the whole act of being born again. For the rest of the life of John Wesley he taught this strange new doctrine but kept paedobaptism. Christian theology changed after Wesley. It was never the same again! Wesley died after establishing ‘methodism’ which is another term for the process of being born again even after paedobaptism. Today the methodism of the Methodists seems to be lost in the Methodist churches founded by the apostle of Methodism himself, John Wesley. He was the first to preach that baptism alone cannot lead you to heaven and that you needed justification through faith alone and spawned by repentance and conscious turning away from sin. This methodism was to influence not only rural England - its country side, and changed a whole nation of badly behaved people into a nation of gentlemen who were born again and therefore well behaved. Rural England was one of the most riotous in Europe of the time. You had villains, drunks etc. The revivals of Methodism changed England completely, brought out the best in England and made the country a country of abolition of slave trade, missionaries to Africa and the rest of the world. All can be traced to those revivals of the 18th century, but it was to permanently influence Christendom and affect evangelicalism till today. Most evangelicals believe today that there is a need for a conscious turning away from sin in the process well recognized as being born again- completely separate physically from baptism, but locked with in an eternal union of significance, just like Wesley. Before Wesley, theologians who emphasized justification by faith alone such as Martin Luther (1703-1791), John Calvin (1509-1564) and the rest did mention regeneration which is another name for being born again but they all interpreted it to mean regeneration at baptism, which invariably meant paedobaptism and therefore cannot be inclusive of repentance and conscious turning away from sin. In fact the fundamentalist definition of evangelicalism was those who believe you must be ‘born again’. Today a broader approach has been forced on this definition to include all the fundamentalists who believe that the Bible is the infallible word of God - all of it and not a part.


The position of ‘born again’ in ordo salutis: At what point in the order of salvation does an individual become born again? Do you receive the Holy Ghost baptism before you are born again?  There is no order. You receive the Holy Spirit when God says you receive it. The proof text had been quoted earlier- when Cornelius and his group received the Holy Spirit during a preaching engagement before they even had the time to repent and confess their sins. Nevertheless this is the exception rather than the rule. It is best though, to ask a potential convert to first repent of his sins, accept Jesus Christ as His personal Saviour before you begin to talk about Holy Spirit baptism unless of course, as may often happen, the Holy Spirit overrules you and gives the gift before any other order as was the case with Cornelius and his household. This practice of putting the Holy Spirit baptism before repentance is quite common in the CAC although it is not available in the official document on tenets of the church. The church clergy should at all cost avoid this situation for it makes it easy to loose converts and unrepentant converts to change into cultists, which often happens, to the bane of the church and to the destruction of the individuals. For the unrepentant person sees no further reason to confess his sins since the Spirit of God is telling him clearly that he can still be used even with his sins even if they are unconfessed. Then the next question the individual will ask himself would be- why repent if you are useful as a sinner?

Part of the problem in the CAC also includes the undue emphasis in some instances on signs and wonders and those who possess them while righteousness is pushed to the background. Those who lead are those who have received spectacular gifts, most especially the gifts of prophesy. Any prophet can start a church etc. Gifts of prophesy is to edify the church, the individual still needs to edify himself. If this situation is reversed so that those who are used to lead are the righteous ones- either to preach, minister or counsel, this unhealthy emphasis on gifts and those who possess them will disappear. This is clearly exemplified in the famous Pauline text


I1 Corinthians 13:1-8  Though I speak with the tongues of men and of angels, and have not charity, I am become as sounding brass, or a tinkling cymbal. And though I have the gift of prophecy, and understand all mysteries, and all knowledge; and though I have all faith, so that I could remove mountains, and have not charity, I am nothing. And though I bestow all my goods to feed the poor, and though I give my body to be burned, and have not charity, it profiteth me nothing. Charity suffereth long, and is kind; charity envieth not; charity vaunteth not itself, is not puffed up,  Doth not behave itself unseemly, seeketh not her own, is not easily provoked, thinketh no evil; Rejoiceth not in iniquity, but rejoiceth in the truth;  Beareth all things, believeth all things, hopeth all things, endureth all things. Charity never faileth: but whether there be prophecies, they shall fail; whether there be tongues, they shall cease; whether there be knowledge, it shall vanish away.


But examine this Pauline text which seems like contradiction


1 Corinthians 14:1-5  Follow after charity, and desire spiritual gifts, but rather that ye may prophesy. For he that speaketh in an unknown tongue speaketh not unto men, but unto God: for no man understandeth him; howbeit in the spirit he speaketh mysteries.  But he that prophesieth speaketh unto men to edification, and exhortation, and comfort. He that speaketh in an unknown tongue edifieth himself; but he that prophesieth edifieth the church.  I would that ye all spake with tongues, but rather that ye prophesied: for greater is he that prophesieth than he that speaketh with tongues, except he interpret, that the church may receive edifying.


Paul seems to be saying here, if you wish to edify yourself speak in tongues at home, if you wish to edify the church, prophesy in the church. It is therefore not wrong to desire spiritual gifts. Anyone who claims spiritual gifts are useless in this modern age is mistaken. With the rise in Satanism, occultism and all other magical satanic practices, there is no solution except in spiritual gifts for the Christian by which he meets force with force. You cannot be neutral in this game for according to Ron Kenoly the singer, ‘there is no demilitarized zone.’

CAC should, in seeking gifts eschew the position in which those who have the desirable gifts become the leader of the church or workers. No, those who should be workers are those with love and righteousness so that the church may be edified further.


CAC is a cult?

Some evangelical scholars have argued that the CAC is a cult because it uses prayer water. That is the typical nonsense we hear daily from scholars who have not done their homework well enough.  Water was used as a medium of contact of faith just as the apostles used handkerchief and other materials in the past in the NT (Ac 19:12). For water to qualify as cult activity it must be absolute, which is, it must be total part of liturgy and any convert must take it in order to be a convert or to go to heaven. No, in the CAC you are free to take the water or not. In most cases water is used as a form of faith medium in revivals not in church service. Close to the end of the revival service, the leading preacher or evangelists then invites those who have brought their water to the church to raise them up for prayer. He then prays on the water to the hearing of everyone. Or the individual can bring his/her water from home to see the man of God personally who then prays on the water in his/her presence. This method is a little different from that adopted by Babalola at the starting revivals of Oke Oye in Ilesha. What Babalola did was to pray on a stream of water at Oke Oye and during the revivals, adherents would simply go to the stream to collect water, similar to what obtained at the pool of Bethesda (Jn 5:3-15) for the benefit of the Jews before the Messiah came. That is hardly a cult practice.[17]

The CAC does not use candles to pray or any other unbiblical items.[18] Despite the fact that the CAC is decidedly not cultic in doctrine or practice, it does not mean that individual prophets or members cannot be deceived to set up cult groups inadvertently or deliberately. But the synod group represented by the Supreme or Executive Council always calls attention to these falsehoods from time to time.


CAC Christology

This is not different from the main line Christology of the divinity and manhood of Christ. Jesus Christ is believed to be the second person in the Trinity. He is our Saviour for he died on the cross to carry away our sins. In the end times he will come to rule the world for 1000 years after the rapture of the saints. He will rule from Jerusalem after which there would be second resurrection and judgment.


CAC Pneumatology

CAC believes in the baptism of the Holy Spirit which may be performed at any time but with emphasis on repentance. According to Peel


The Holy Spirit is preached most earnestly and the great majority of pastors and prophet have received it; they say it was the most memorable thing in their lives. Thus the young pastor of Odo Ona, near Ibadan  a cousin of Babalola’s: he was fifteen years old and staying with a catechist relative in Ekiti; they sang hymns, prayed, and asked for the Holy Spirit, then ‘there was something like a storm and I see that my tongue is changed; since then, ah! (he laughed) –there is a happiness in my life!’ Most Christ Apostolic churches have ‘tarrying meeting’ for the Holy Spirit; only a minority of members have received it, at least as a distinct experience.’[19]




“Many of Babajide’s numerous pamphlets on the Holy Spirit emphasizes its Fruits (Gal 5:23), all moral qualities, and such as existed before Baptism of the Holy Spirit was practiced; and he sometimes emphasizes that the gifts may be misused by false prophets. There is thus a distinction between the clearly recognized phenomenon of pentecostal baptism, and the moral changes not always and not necessarily associated with it, which are the work of a more diffuse indwelling of the Holy Spirit. But ‘the axis round which all other instruments of salvation revolve’, as Babajide calls Pentecostal baptism, is the focus of Christ Apostolic Church teaching.’[20]


Pneumatology in the CAC is very profound and thorough but very biblical. It does not mean you do not have mistakes or cult groups who have been misled. This is the bane of Pentecostalism generally for it is very easy to change a purely Christian divine healing practice into a demonic one even sometimes overnight. In some cases it may occur as a result of the person with the spiritual gift fallen into sin, but sometimes it could be deliberate for want of more spiritual power, and adherent may then consult demons or indeed medicine (juju) men for more power. This is why it is not held in the CAC that a Christian cannot be possessed by demons. Of course a Christian who deliberately deviates from the normal Christian practice in a quest to gain spiritual power will immediately be demon possessed. Also any one touches in the course of his activities unclean things deliberately may be possessed.[21]. Once I was asked to go to a shrine of one prominent African god which was kept as a tourist attraction. I asked whether the shrine was still actively used for worship of the particular god/goddess and the answer was affirmative. I immediately declined for I can be possessed by simply going for this tourist attraction and I would then have no one to blame except myself. Rebecca Brown makes it very clear


This brings us to the hotly debated question, “Can a Christian have a demon dwelling inside of him:” I believe scripture clearly shows us that he can. Demons cannot just hop into people whenever they want. We are hedged about so that they cannot get in unless we break a hole in the hedge of protection. How do we break a hole in this protective hedge? BY SIN. I call such sins that permit the entrance of demons temple defiling sins. Why? Because the bottom line in this issue of demons in Christians is this:” Can the temple of God, us, be defiled, and if so, how does Scripture define the term defilement?[22]




Joyce said “I am horrified now as I look back at the number of Christians I put demons into through that practice! They were so eager and willing to go unconscious that they accepted anything I chose to put into them. I frequently put demons of false tongues into them. Then they would wake up speaking in tongues and think they had been baptized by the Holy Spirit.”[23]


CAC Angelology

This is not different from the normal angelology taught in most evangelical churches. No one prays to angels or strange names or even known names or persons except to Jesus and the Trinity. Angels are known to be agents of God and when they are seen in vision, are not worshiped but simply revered.


One prophet, whose church and divine healing home is loosely affiliated to the Christ apostolic Church does refer to the help given by ‘powerful angels’; but some of his methods are considered rather dubious by the central authorities’[24] p 148.


CAC Healing doctrines

CAC believes in divine healing aided by faith but not faith healing.


 INDEED THE Christ Apostolic Church, following the English apostolics, draws a distinction between ‘divine healing’ and ‘faith healing, intended to separate Apostolic methods from those of miscellaneous faith-healers whose work is purely psychological.[25]


On healing Odubanjo[26] said

‘What heals when one uses point of contact? Is it the hem of the garment? Laying on of hands? Anointing of oil? Clay used to rub eyes of blind? Is it water prayed on in bottle? It is only the faith released that bring healing…Drinking water for healing is not the best theology…if people are healed in this way it is nothing but an exhibition of His tender mercy. [27]


Babalola saw a vision in 1928 before the great revivals of 1930. This must have prepared his mind for the doctrine of divine healing without medicine which was to follow for many years and which was coined in Yoruba as iwosan lai l’ogun.


 In his (Babalola) vision an angel brought him a piece of dry fish in a calabash which gave him an electric shock when he touched it. The angel explained that it represented the leaves and herbs used or medicine but ‘there was no power in it at all, but God was going to render them useless and powerless’. Medicine was to be given up and God alone trusted for healing.[28]


The doctrine of healing is quite profound in the CAC. In the early days it led to the schism between the CAC and TAC in 1939. It theoretically forbids all manner of medicine, whether western or juju. In this particular instance, it was not appeal to Bible or any proof text in the Bible that led to this practice. It was fueled by the Ilesha revivals as mentioned in the early parts of this chapter.


CAC Demonology

The theology of demons in the CAC is quite profound. It recognizes, just like most Pentecostal groups and evangelical systems, the fallen angels who fell with Satan in the first disobedience (Is 14:12) and the group that fraternized with men in the latter disobedience (2 Pe 2:4; Jude 10) as mentioned in Genesis 6:1-3 with the formation of the Nephilim.


When men began to increase in number on the earth and daughters were born to them, the sons of God saw that the daughters of men were beautiful, and they married any of them they chose. Then the Lord said ‘My Spirit will not contend with man forever, for he is mortal, his days will be hundred and twenty years. The Nephilim were on the earth in those days-and also afterward-when the sons of God went to the daughters of men and had children by them. They are heroes of old, men of renown. The Lord saw how great man’s wickedness on the earth had become and that every conciliation of the thoughts of his heart was only evil all the time.’


Nephilim[29] may in actual fact be the Neanderthal man which scientists have recognized as giants that lived on earth as man before modern man.


Scientific evaluation. Is it really possible for men to have intercourse with spirit beings? Scientifically, we cannot even prove the existence of spirit beings. Several exegetes have said it is impossible (appealing to the passage which talked that angels in heaven never marry[30] but these exegetes are doing great disservice to the text, for that is clearly what the text was meant to convey; angels slept with females. Early church fathers had used 2 Peter[31] as interpretative framework. The interpretation of angels having intercourse with men was the norm until it was changed by Calvin in the 16th century. Calvin maintains that the sons of God where descendants of Seth while the daughters of men were from the line of Cain. How can the same species lead to development of sinful giants? Hence from canonical and extracanonical considerations, it is impossible to say this was not what the text meant. Indeed modern writer and well known anti-Satanist Rebecca Brown said


Sex with demons-This is an area that very few people are willing to write about because they are afraid of the ridicule it will bring. Most Christians laugh at the very thought and say it is impossible. But the occultist know the reality of it, and so does the world.[32]


But what concerns us here would be the production of the men of renown, the Nephilim (interpreted as giants)[33] for the fossils records of the oldest giants were the Homo sapiens neanderthalis.[34] This species is dated 100, 000 years ago and existed for some time contemporaneously with Cro magnon man whose fossils appear in strata about 35, 000 years ago. If these Nephilim were giants, and existed at the time of Noah’s Flood, one would assume that a number of them would attempt to escape the flood by entering into caves and blocking its entrance only to perish in the caves due to the length of period of the said Flood. They will be then today identified as cave-dwellers. Since Neanderthal had heavy bony features, it is easy to see his correspondence with the Nephilim. Hence it is possible, while in the caves, they could only use stone tools and this may have been erroneously interpreted stone culture.[35] Indeed most fossils of Neanderthal man is found in caves with heavy bones and heavy and thick skulls.

But this is not what concerns us now in demonology but what happened to the Nephilim who were supposed to have been wiped out by Noah’s flood for it was mainly because of them that God decided to wipe out the earth. The Jewish literature continues that it was this Nephilim whose species inhabited the mountains, rivers and other corners of the universe, to plague man as another form of species for ever. Some have even suggested they may be responsible for UFO etc. What ever be the case, the CAC demonology takes care of these populating spirits of the earth, some whom have been called Ogbanje (Ibo), Mammy water spirit, Emere, Abiku (Yoruba) etc. Many have met such in deliverance ministries and have attempted to cast out the spirits in them. Lois Fuller, the first Caucasian missionary working in Africa to believe this ‘myth’ of spirit beings entering and cohabiting with human life, explains this clearly that the spirit beings have the uncanny ability to enter into a pregnant woman, drive away the spirit of the embryo (or imprison it in its own body) and occupy the body of the individual till death, which is usually quite early,  after which the spirit goes back to its abode, which may be the sea (marinites), land (emere, ogbanje), land waters, mountains etc. This demonology has become easily accepted in modern Pentecostalism and indeed ecclesiology at least in Africa; the problem has always been how to apply the Bible to its understanding, for the Bible clearly states it is appointed unto man once to die and after this judgment. Heb 9:27.Although even Jewish literature is full of this theme in demonology, a proof text if any, would be Ps 58.


Psalms 58:1-11  Do ye indeed speak righteousness, O congregation? do ye judge uprightly, O ye sons of men?  Yea, in heart ye work wickedness; ye weigh the violence of your hands in the earth. The wicked are estranged from the womb: they go astray as soon as they be born, speaking lies.  Their poison is like the poison of a serpent: they are like the deaf adder that stoppeth her ear; Which will not hearken to the voice of charmers, charming never so wisely.  Break their teeth, O God, in their mouth: break out the great teeth of the young lions, O LORD. Let them melt away as waters which run continually: when he bendeth his bow to shoot his arrows, let them be as cut in pieces. As a snail which melteth, let every one of them pass away: like the untimely birth of a woman, that they may not see the sun. Before your pots can feel the thorns, he shall take them away as with a whirlwind, both living, and in his wrath.  The righteous shall rejoice when he seeth the vengeance: he shall wash his feet in the blood of the wicked. So that a man shall say, Verily there is a reward for the righteous: verily he is a God that judgeth in the earth.


The evangelical Emmanuel Eni of the Scripture Union (Nigeria) explains this in his discourse.[36] It is amazing that CAC had had this as part of its theology long before other pentecostal groups practicing in Africa appealing to the nephilim theology of Gen 6:1-3. It is doubtful whether this would ever be a problem for biblical hermeneuticians in the western world, but it is a profound problem in Africa; a problem which had been hitherto attempted to be solved only by the medicine men.


Case report: The story is told of how Joanah Ogunranti performed deliverance of a female who claimed she was a queen of one sort of a cohort in the sea. They met in their meetings in the sea in their spirit rather than physical body. This lady hails from Calabar but lives in Port Harcourt; extremely pretty young lady. She had had this, according to her since she was born and she rose to be the queen of the sea group of the said cohort through the ranks. She narrated the story of how one day she was in the church and could feel the power of the Holy Ghost coming from Joanah towards her. The heat was unbearable. This was the time Joanah was preaching and as usual was going through her normal marathon homily. After the service, she went to Joanah to tell her about her problem. In her characteristic way Joanah rang the prayer bell three times and commanded the marine spirit in her to get out. It did, according to her, and she was delivered since then without much problems. She later claimed that the members of her group could not accept her exit. So they beat her with sticks spiritually and the marks appeared physically on her body. But the lady said she was stubborn and resolute that she would never go back to the demonic group again. After a period of time, which could have been up to a year, the members of this demonic group ceased for ever to flog her or persecute or disturb her in any way. She had a lasting freedom which she enjoys till today.

Several of such stories abound in the days of Babalola, especially the days of the revivals. The story was even told that his own wife (Babalola) was plagued with this problem. Like it is being suggested, this is an African problem. Foreign missions could never understand it and they did not pretend to do so. They simply waived it away as non existent. That is certainly not the way to solve a problem of sane people. The fact that you do not see something does not mean it does not exit, as Louis Pasteur in the 18th century proved conclusively using the microscope on microorganisms, which cause disease in man.

Other areas of demon attacks are quite common in African theological practice, except that the above is most common. Hence casting out of demons as was practiced in New Testament times is quite common in the CAC.


Witchcraft[37]: This problem, which is quite common in Africa, is part of the CAC demonology. Babalola had to deal with it using omi iye in the early days. It is not quite clear after Babalola whether any witch actually was delivered in the CAC. The fiery preacher interested in witches ministry in the CAC is the blind preacher called Obadare. He also has very little testimony of converted witches, but these witches are said to do a lot of evil against members of the church for which most of them (he members) seek refuge. The strange part of the witchcraft demonology is that virtually everything claimed to be done by witches is said to be performed non-empirically and hence cannot be determined physically. But there is another variety of witchcraft which is not present in Africa but is common in Europe and America. Rebecca Brown calls attention to this type which plagues the white man and is physical rather than spiritual, in contradistinction to the African type, making the white appear more primitive than blacks. In North America, these witches/wizards are called Satanists because they worship Satan directly. They are also in involved in human sacrifice, child sexual abuse (paedophilia) and molestation to include child slavery, all physically. Almost all cases of child abuse comes from Satanist who set up churches which they call ‘Church of Satan’ to worship Satan. Satanists are essentially witches and wizards (warlocks) but they have no patience to perform their acts spiritually and so they do them physically, most commonly at the new moon and other demonic festivities.


Basically, Satanist don’t have the patience and discipline to spend so much time and effort performing meticulous rituals. It is much quicker and easier for them to do sacrifice (human). They gain the cooperation of more powerful demons that way. The others deal with the less powerful demons, but they are demons just the same no matter what you choose to call them. You learn very quickly in witchcraft that there are NO such things as impersonal energies. They are all VERY personal. You are either dealing with demons or the power of God. So anyone that is controlling an “energy” or “power” of any kind is dealing with demons. It is just that simple. It is so very different to serve a master who will forgive you instead of taking great delight in punishing you for any little thing. Jesus gives life. The demons always bring death.[38]


CAC Liturgy of worship


The church service in CAC is not too different from what you have in most Pentecostal churches. They begin their day with praise worship of songs and hymns. This is then followed by the actual beginning of service after which there are no more choruses except hymns in books of hymns, prayer, and homily. Shout of halleluyah is common anytime during the service.

The CAC hymn book is one of the largest in evangelicalism; it is flowerily evangelical and liturgically pentecostal having over 800 hymns compiled from various sources, beginning from Charles Wesley to Sankey etc and including the hymns of revivals in the 19th and 20th centuries and also indigenous ones. It is so rich it has virtually all known revival hymns. Do not forget the CAC had shared similar tradition with The Apostolic Church of Wales before the schism. But what is most remarkable is the CAC choir itself, provided its own translation of these great songs.














Dancing and clapping of hands

The CAC clap hands and it was the distinguishing marks of the Aladuraism many years ago. Now all pentecostals clap hands, dance, perform praise worship in a liberated manner. There are of course proof texts in the Bible, mostly from Psalms advising this kind of practice but I believe what ever is culturally acceptable should be used to worship and praise God. That is the essence of praise-worship. David danced many time before God. Many years ago though, the CAC only allowed dancing and clapping of hands or even shouting halleluyah during revivals. All through normal Sunday service these activities were banned. But it is not so today!


Laying of hands

This liturgical activity is common in almost all Pentecostal /evangelical churches. Its problem is that it can easily be used as a medium for transferring demons into genuine Christians. Laying of hands is performed in the CAC but not as common as many other Pentecostal churches. Also only certified prophets and preachers/pastors do so, not laity, which his highly commendable. At least abuse is minimal in the CAC, while it is quite high in most other aladura units. The truth is that we are commanded not to lay hands hastily. ‘Do not be hasty in laying on of hands, and do not share in the sins of others. Keep yourself pure’ (1 Tim 5:22). Also only elders are allowed to lay hands on anyone as in James 5. Do not let just anyone lay hands on any body.


Yes, I will never understand why so many Christians think they are automatically protected from Satan and his demons EVEN if they actively sin against God! They completely overlook the scripture in Galatians 6:7-8 which says we WILL reap what we sow. There is another practice in the churches that is so common yet is against scripture. I consider it to be very dangerous. It is the practice whereby anyone from the congregation can come up and lay hands on, and pray with, those at the altar. It doesn’t matter if you are a first time visitor in some churches, they will still let you do whatever you want. It provides a free-for-all for the infiltrating Satanists.



Shout Halleluyah[39]

Shouting Halleluyah is new in history church liturgy, especially during service but certainly it did not start with the CAC.  Check Ps 106:1; 111:1; 112:1; 113:1; 117:1; 135:1; 146:1, 10-147:1; 148:1; Rev 19:1. It is a Hebrew word and its meaning is simply praise the Lord! At a point in Nigeria, it was the way of recognizing the aladura but now every one uses it for praise worship it has now become a symbol of the Christian so much so that in 2001 it was used as identifying mark. During one of the crisis between muslims and Christians in Jos, it was used to distinguish Christians from muslims who when asked to respond to ‘Praise the Lord’, would not know ‘Halleluyah’ was the answer!


Use of hand bells for prayer

The use of bell before or during prayer was instruction given to Babalola, according to him, by God and this procedure has also become rampant in the CAC. While it is harmless for the bell is just a call to prayer, it can be clearly misunderstood as cultic and should therefore be used with caution in modern CAC.


CAC Theology of Prayer

As we mentioned under the section of Aladuraism, what is the most profound feature of the aladura was and is still prayer- long sessions, at bar beach, hills, mountains etc. Most of the original group of the aladura still now perform these although those who pray along the beach have been disbanded by governmental long time ago, while they have  have regrouped and are found in various high and low mountains all over the landscape of the country Nigeria. Some of these, but not most are from CAC. While some members of the CAC go to mountains (not beach or other places), it is not part of the liturgy neither is it compulsory or part of the written tenets. Some members just simply follow an old practice of Babalola who preferred to pray in the mountains in his ministry days. Some will say mountains are high places which can be closer to God or heaven than ordinary land as a reason for selecting mountains for prayer but that is just ignorance from the laity. The proof text for liturgy of mountain prayer is found in Jesus praying at the desert, but not mountain.


And after six days Jesus taketh with him Peter, and James, and John, and leadeth them up into an high mountain apart by themselves: and he was transfigured before

them. Mark 9:2


This text does not say the Jesus prayed in this mountain. There is no evidence that God expects us to pray in the mountains in the Bible. Joanah never entered or prayed in any mountain but she knows and is aware that many pray in the mountains in the CAC. Is it valid for prayer efficacy or is it a figment of imagination? I think it is the latter. There is no where in the Bible that says that prayer on the mountains is more efficacious than prayer anywhere else. The principle is solitary prayer where you can concentrate and listen to your God in His still small voice.


And when you pray, do not be like the hypocrites, for they love to pray stand in the synagogues and on the street corners to be seen by men. I tell you the truth, they have received their reward in full. But when you pray, go into your room, close the door and pray to your Father, who is unseen. Then your Father, who sees what is done in secret, will reward you. Mt 6:5-6.


This is the main procedure for prayer enumerated in a few sentences by Jesus himself

You need a solitary place. Probably your own inner closet, not necessarily a mountain. But if you cannot get privacy in your home-e.g. because of wife or children, then select a solitary place. In a place like Nigeria, the best would be the mountains if not populated. Unfortunately the modern mountains where most pray especially in Western Nigeria, is now so populated it cannot ever be said to be solitary. The solitary theme is exemplified by Jesus himself who spent so much time praying in the desert (wilderness), the only solitary place he could find in his mission in Judea. Do not forget that he shares his place of abode with all his twelve disciples and hence a closet that is solitary is unlikely to be found easily.


Matthew 4:1  Then was Jesus led up of the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted of the devil.

Luke 4:1  And Jesus being full of the Holy Ghost returned from Jordan, and was led by the Spirit into the wilderness,


Prayer is unusually loud in the CAC since everyone opens his mouth to say exactly what he/she wishes God to hear audibly. This is in contradistinction to what obtains in most non-pentecostal churches where even the lips do not move during praying (as it did with Hannah – 1 Sam 1:13) and is very serene. In fact in such places, prayers are said in atmosphere of quietness, appealing to the text ‘Be still, and know that I am God.’Ps 46:10.

The verse has nothing to do with quietness during multiple prayer. The CAC also appeals to their own proof text –‘Clap your hand, all you nations; shout to God with cries of joy.’ Ps 47:1 said at the very next psalm.


Vain babbling and period of prayer: The length of prayer can be unusually long with the Aladura. In the early days of the movement, the Cherubim and Seraphim aladura, before the death of Orimolade, were known to pray for over 12 hours for a sick person. Is this biblical? If so, where are the proof texts.


And when you pray, do not keep on babbling like pagan, for they think they will be heard because of their many word. Do not be like them, for your father knows what you need before you ask him. Mt 6:7-8.


It is clear in this text that Jesus does not want his disciples or followers to spend too much time on vain repetitions ‘like pagans’, while praying. This is making reference to satanic ritualistic words and incantations which need to be repeated sometimes more than thousands of times, to invoke demons. It is still a practice rampant in the use of magical books etc and is used as cover sometimes to simulate prayer.[40] It has nothing to do with the length of time to pray. As we all know Jesus himself prayed for long each time he went into solitary confinement to seek the face of His God.


Very early in the morning while it was still dark, Jesus got up, left the house and went off to a solitary place, where he prayed. Mk 1:35


Jesus had this habit of waking up early to pray in a solitary place so that when his disciples wake up they would have to go and look for him in the mountains. He spent several hours at Gethsemane praying (Mk 14:32-42). He even spent 40 days and nights alone in the wilderness praying about his mission (at once the Spirit sent him out into the desert, and he was in the desert forty days, being tempted by Satan. He was with the wild animals, and angels attended him.’ Mk 1:12. It is therefore unlikely that he would not have been repeating what he wanted to say. As a matter of fact, he repeated himself in Gethsemane


Once more he went away and prayed the same thing. Mk 14:39.


Jesus was therefore not talking about repeating yourself in prayer in the text Mt 6:7-8 the way we understand it. He was talking about vain babbling of incantations for the devil for he mentioned ‘pagan’ which suggests idol or devil worship. You can repeat yourself a million times just like the persistent widow who repeated herself demanding justice saying the same thing but not vain demonic babbling. In the words of Jesus himself


In a certain town there was a judge who neither feared God nor cared about men. And there was a widow in that town who kept coming to him with the plea, ‘Grant me justice against  my adversary.’

For some time he refused. But finally he said to himself, ‘Even though I don’t fear God or care about men, yet because this widow keeps bothering me, I will see that she gets justice, so that she won’t eventually wear me out with her coming.’ Lk 18:4-5.


The points we can garner from this parable of the persistent widow is as follows


  • She persistently demanded for justice  from the unjust king
  • She kept on coming back to talk to the king
  • She did not give up
  • She was almost wearing out the king


Jesus then added


And will not God bring about justice for his chosen ones, who cry out to him day and night? Will he keep putting them off? I tell you, he will see hat they get justice, and quickly.’ Lk 18:7-8.


This answers it all. First Jesus talks of his chosen ones who cry to him day and night.  You have to be a righteous man and therefore chosen by God before you can be heard by him. You must also cry day and night; which means repeating yourself. It is also said the


The prayer of a righteous man is powerful and effective. Jas 5:16.

Pray without ceasing. 1 Thess 5:17


How do we do exegesis to the system above? We can conclude with the data available to us as follows


  • Pray always (1 Thess 5:17- Pray without ceasing; Men should always pray and not give up (Lk 18:1)
  • Pray more for your ‘wants’ than your ‘needs’. ‘My God will meet all your needs according to his glorious riches in Christ Jesus- Phil 4:19- sees also other texts[41]) Ask for what your ‘want’ (Ask and you shall receive that your joy may be full-)
  • Reiterate your request as many times as you wish but do not repeat as if you are making magic formula and incantation by repeating single word or phrase many times over. In my opinion the many times over should be way outside the range of 100 to qualify as pagan practice or ritual.
  • Stay for as long as you feel you need your request and that is limitless. You can stay for 7 days or more.
  • Fast if possible. ‘And Jesus said unto them, “Can the children

of the bridechamber mourn, as long as the bridegroom is with them? but the days will come, when the bridegroom shall be taken from them, and then shall they fast” Mt 9:15).


The above technique works. The aladura will tell you that much. What else can we say? Some reject this method as a way of forcing God’s hand. So be it. That is what God asked us to do in the parable of the persistent widow. He said ‘Men should always pray and not give up (Lk 18:1). Joanah used it and many other God’s generals used it. Martin Luther learnt the technique of endless prayer in the monastery. He was always praying either on his knees or pray-walking, sometimes a whole night without sleeping. He was the first reformer ever to have survived the onslaught of the papacy for he died of natural illness and not by the gallows. This is the technique of the aladura par excellence; it was the method of Babalola and Moses Orimolade. It is the method of all successful Elijahs in God’s vineyard. It is the secret behind the success of the CAC today.


Technique of prayer


And this, then is how you should pray:

‘Our Father in heaven, hallowed be your name, your kingdom come, your will be done on earth as it is in heaven. Give us today our daily bread. Forgive us our debts, as we also have forgiven our debtors. And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil one.’ Mt 6:9-13.


The Lord’s prayer teaches us how to pray.[42] It details the themes that must be present in any prayer piece as follows

  • Call upon the name of God who will answer your prayer. If not, it might be hijacked by the devil -Our Father in heaven)
  • Worship and adore Him -hallowed be your name, your kingdom come
  • Ask for His will -your will be done on earth as it is in heaven.
  • Ask for your need gently  -Give us today our daily bread
  • Ask for forgiveness of sin -Forgive us our debts, as we also have forgiven our debtors
  • Ask for power to resist temptation And lead us not into temptation,
  • Ask for power to resist devil and be saved from his machinations-  but deliver us from evil one

THIS IS BECAUSE COMMITTING SIN AND PRAYER ARE TWO INCOMPATIBLES '...Shall we continue in sin, that grace may abound? God forbid' Rom 6:1-2.


  • Now is the time you then detail all your ‘wants’ without leaving one out. Wants- galore!
  • Post-prayer caption -Through Jesus Christ our Lord (until now you have not asked for anything in my name. Ask and you will receive and your joy will be complete( Jn 16:24f)


Effective Elijah prayer

Elijah is considered a model of man of effective prayer. That was why James said to him


Elijah was a man just like us. He prayed earnestly that it would not rain and it did not rain on the land for three and a half years. Again he prayed, and the heavens gave rain and the earth produced its crops. James 5:17


Although God answered Elijah’s prayer he did not send leanness to his soul as those who argue using Ps 106:15 which says ‘so he gave them what they asked for, but sent a wasting disease upon them (leanness to their soul- AV)’. Hence it does not make sense to say that any one whose prayer is answered is forcing God’s hand and would therefore be punished in the soul. If you prayed hard to receive US $10 million and you received it, it is your duty to keep your previous touch with your God, which is often times, difficult but not impossible. If leanness then comes upon your soul, it is not because God has sent the leanness. It is because you have not heeded the caution you need to exercise since love of money is the root of all evil (1 Ti 6:10).

Christ summed up the power of the prayerful man which was the power of Elijah.


 I tell you the truth whatever you bind on earth will be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth will be loosed in heaven.

Again, I tell you that if two of you on earth agree about anything you ask for, it will be done for you by my Father in heaven. For where two or three come together in my name, there am I with them.” Mt 18:18


Sin factor in prayers

You will see that all prayers must be followed with holiness. If you commit sin while you ask for your want just forget it! If you commit sin after getting your want, the want will disappear! STAY AWAY FROM SIN, ESPECIALLY THE SEXUAL SINS WHICH ARE MOST COMMON AMONGST MOST PEOPLE AND IN THE YOUNG, AND ESPECIALLY WHEN PRAYING FOR WANTS! 


CAC Theology of Fasting

Babalola taught the CAC how to fast. He did 40 days and nights fast like Jesus before he began his ministry. He taught the CAC that without fasting there can be no spiritual power. Some people who fast for long in the CAC are looking for spiritual power and gifts to perform miracles because they think it is a formula for obtaining power. Of course it is not! God gives gifts as freely as he is able to do and does not give gifts for greedy purposes but to advance his own kingdom. Only a few have learned to perform their fast for their earthly ‘wants’ and not ‘needs’. Joanah was the best example of this and this will be discussed in the subsequent chapters.

There are so many proof texts which suggest that a Christian ought to fast regularly.[43] Again fasting is not about being holy. It is about your wants, not your needs.[44] It is not for pleasing God for no fast pleases God since he is not going to derive any pleasure from starving you or eat your abandoned food.  Fast for what you want, no matter how big you think that thing is. God will decide himself what size to give you if it is too big.


Fasting technique

The Bible again provides the technique of fasting. You should stay away from food, but may not necessarily stay without water. Almost all fasts in the Bible is done with abstinence from food but not water including the 40 days fast of Jesus (Mk 1:12). Only the fast of Esther banned both food and water for all Jews living in Persia. Select the method you wish to pursue. Methods of fasting include


  • One day fast which breaks at 6.00pm. It could be for a day or more e.g. 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 40 days. The fast is broken every day at 6.00pm.
  • It may be a day fast routinely e.g.  twice a week, every Friday or Sunday etc.
  • It may be more than one day –e.g. one day one night which breaks at 6.00a.m., or 2 days 2 nights or 3, 7, 14, 21, or 40 days and nights fast. Usually if you must go without water, try not to do it with anything beyond 7 days and nights unless there is a definite instruction from above to the contrary.
  • In the next 10 days you loose the fat in the body in long fast. After then the muscles of your body begin to break down to provide energy. A long fast is dangerous, unless God himself ordains it!


The normal Jewish technique of a day’s fast is to keep the head down from 6.00am to 6.00pm while praying in a prostate position and sometimes in the open. Talk of repetition! Today we do not do this but a person fasting should try to find the time to pray. Fasting can be combined with manual or office work. It is best however if you have the time to be in seclusion or retreat during your fast.

If a fast is more than one day, it has to be broken gradually. Do not go and take solid food at the end of the fat. Take water first, then fruit or fruit juice, (not milk!) and then about an hour later follow with pap or cereal without milk and then later solid food depending on the length of the marathon or long fast. If it is longer than 3 days (and nights) you may need to begin solid food the next day or later in the evening.

For medical reasons do not engage in fast in order to get power for your greed will let the process kill you.[45] It is not medically advisable to starve your self voluntarily and it must therefore be for a good reason, which the Holy Spirit will attest to. For example a person who is doing long fasting because he/she has been put in prison on false charges is quite justified or a woman fasting for her child who is to be hanged or ill or is dying. Generally speaking, long fasting is used to break the yoke of curses as a result of satanic or black magic attacks and sometimes may be the only hope. As a matter of fact, there is a long text in the Bible which proves this in the Book of Judges


Judges 20:14-36  But the children of Benjamin gathered themselves together out of the cities unto Gibeah, to go out to battle against the children of Israel. And the children of Benjamin were numbered at that time out of the cities twenty and six thousand men that drew sword, beside the inhabitants of Gibeah, which were numbered seven hundred chosen men. Among all this people there were seven hundred chosen men lefthanded; every one could sling stones at an hair breadth, and not miss. And the men of Israel, beside Benjamin, were numbered four hundred thousand men that drew sword: all these were men of war. And the children of Israel arose, and went up to the house of God, and asked counsel of God, and said, Which of us shall go up first to the battle against the children of Benjamin? And the LORD said, Judah shall go up first. And the children of Israel rose up in the morning, and encamped against Gibeah. And the men of Israel went out to battle against Benjamin; and the men of Israel put themselves in array to fight against them at Gibeah. And the children of Benjamin came forth out of Gibeah, and destroyed down to the ground of the Israelites that day twenty and two thousand men. And the people the men of Israel encouraged themselves, and set their battle again in array in the place where they put themselves in array the first day. (And the children of Israel went up and wept before the LORD until even, and asked counsel of the LORD, saying, Shall I go up again to battle against the children of Benjamin my brother? And the LORD said, Go up against him.) And the children of Israel came near against the children of Benjamin the second day. And Benjamin went forth against them out of Gibeah the second day, and destroyed down to the ground of the children of Israel again eighteen thousand men; all these drew the sword. Then all the children of Israel, and all the people, went up, and came unto the house of God, and wept, and sat there before the LORD, and fasted that day until even, and offered burnt offerings and peace offerings before the LORD. And the children of Israel enquired of the LORD, (for the ark of the covenant of God was there in those days, And Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron, stood before it in those days,) saying, Shall I yet again go out to battle against the children of Benjamin my brother, or shall I cease? And the LORD said, Go up; for to morrow I will deliver them into thine hand. And Israel set liers in wait round about Gibeah. And the children of Israel went up against the children of Benjamin on the third day, and put themselves in array against Gibeah, as at other times. And the children of Benjamin went out against the people, and were drawn away from the city; and they began to smite of the people, and kill, as at other times, in the highways, of which one goeth up to the house of God, and the other to Gibeah in the field, about thirty men of Israel.  And the children of Benjamin said, They are smitten down before us, as at the first. But the children of Israel said, Let us flee, and draw them from the city unto the highways. And all the men of Israel rose up out of their place, and put themselves in array at Baaltamar: and the liers in wait of Israel came forth out of their places, even out of the meadows of Gibeah. And there came against Gibeah ten thousand chosen men out of all Israel, and the battle was sore: but they knew not that evil was near them. And the LORD smote Benjamin before Israel: and the children of Israel destroyed of the Benjamites that day twenty and five thousand and an hundred men: all these drew the sword. So the children of Benjamin saw that they were smitten: for the men of Israel gave place to the Benjamites, because they trusted unto the liers in wait which they had set beside Gibeah.


This is a strange story. How can the Benjamites defeat the whole of Israel when God had told them they would defeat Benjamin? What has made Benjamin so strong. If you read what created this problem in Judges 19 you will see that Benjamites had gone apostate; they had followed after the devil and become degenerate. There is only one explanation for this; they have gone to idols or black magic which was helping them to defeat Israel. Only a good fast could have conquered them!

But Jesus had made it clear when he explained to his disciples that some demons cannot be cast out without fasting.


Howbeit this kind goeth not out but by prayer and fasting. Mt 17:21


This sentence has been removed from the NIV because, according to textual critics, it was not founding the earliest version of the Gospel according to St Matthew. But textual critics are not always right and even while they make their scientific rules some of such rules may be exceptions, which is what many would consider the problem with Mt 17:21 which has disappeared in modern texts (e.g.Wescott-Hort critical text). Those who have the experience will tell you that without fasting, do not bother to take on powers of darkness as in black magic or Satanists. Many with such experience in Africa will say so and in Nigeria specifically, the CAC seems to have the best and longest experience in this regard. The story of Judges above is the best proof text since textual critics do not have any problem with that text. What Jesus is saying in that text is simple, if you have not fasted, some demons will not take your command which you make in the name of Jesus. Some have had this experience many times when they are unable to cast out demons and they then invited senior members who did then did it  with ease.[46] If you must cast out demons, it is best to do so while fasting!

Long fast (to include day and night) is a strong feature of CAC practices most of who learnt it from Babalola who engaged in long periods of fasting and praying. As a matter of fact most other evangelical and pentecostal groups rarely engage in fasting. It is therefore almost a peculiarity of CAC in Nigeria at least!


White fast

This supposed to be fasting in which you take anything white -usually carbohydrate, but avoid the oily or soupy foods which you normally use to take the white; e.g. sauce to take bread etc. White fast is quite common in some of the non CAC aladura churches. It is NOT a normal CAC fast and it is only mentioned here as comparison. Some have interpreted and given alternate name such as Daniel’s fast to simulate Daniel’s denial where he modified his diet in order not to defile himself with royal food and wine.


Please test your servants for ten days; Give us nothing but vegetables to eat and water to drink. Then compare our appearance with that of the young men who eat the royal food…At the end of the ten days they looked healthier and better nourished than any of the young men who ate the royal food. Dan 1:12,15.


This is best called Daniel’s denial and not fast and may be useful for concentration on one’s work, meditation or in removing any association with unclean things in offered food or wine, but not fast. It may be this last theme that was in the mind of Daniel; but it is certainly not fast.

Dan 10:3 says


In those days I Daniel was mourning three full weeks.

I ate no pleasant bread, neither came flesh nor wine in my

mouth, neither did I anoint myself at all, till three whole

weeks were fulfilled


The theme in the last text is the closest to the fasting we are referring to above in the Bible and could be called Daniel’s fast and also white or denial fast. It may be useful for spiritual insight and not warfare as Daniel himself found, for after this fast he saw a vision of the future (Dan 10:4-21).


Long fasting don’ts

Long fast refers to those that include nights in addition to days.

  • Do not engage in long fast to gain the loving attention of someone you wish to marry who does not want you. It is absolutely useless. This practice is commoner with females than males.
  • Do not engage in long fast to gain spiritual power. It may be dangerous and you may die in your greed.[47]
  • Do not engage in long fasting to get closer to God. You do not need fast to grow in the fruits of the spirit. The fruits come naturally unless you have not repented of your sins or you have not confessed them or some of them.
  • Do not fast for other people you do not know or who have not requested for your aid unless the Spirit of God leads you. Generally intercessory prayer, if fervent need not be accompanied by fasting unless the Spirit says so and this is only for those in deliverance ministry.
  • Do not fast to praise God. There are many days of feast in the Bible for the Jews, but only one day of atonement which is a compulsory fast (Lev 16:30).[48] God does not force you to fast. When you praise God, eat and be merry! Do not fast for sin. Confess your sins and repent- that is all. Repentance means conscious turning away from sin.
  • Do not engage in long fast for your needs. If you do not get your need quite automatically then you are living in sin. Confess your sins and repent and you will see your God provide for your daily needs. But you can fast for your wants! Fasting is God’s providence for his children’s wants.


Fasting in the early church

It is clear from the New Testament that almost all New Testament apostles fasted. The Didache, which represented the practices of the earliest church recorded in the 1st-2nd century most especially at the Churches of Asia recorded by John the Apostle in Revelation (Rev 1:4) just at the end of the apostolic era, shows clearly that members of the church fasted two days a week routinely and even picked days they were to fast and the days they were not to fast.[49]


Deliverance in CAC and exorcism

This is not as common as it is in some of the new Pentecostal churches but only the CAC was the first to pray for deliverance from such conditions as Ogbanje, emere, Abiku etc or marine spirits. For many years the conditions were not understood by the foreign missions who denied their existence. Most who had the problem then had no choice but to go to the native doctors or juju men.

Again this was learnt from Babalola who had considerable experience in dealing with these problems. Many witches were said to have repented in his time and those who didn’t and took the prayer water and were said to have died.


Other practices

No earrings- Traditional CAC worship does not allow women to wear any form of gold or indeed earrings, in keeping with the admonition to women by Peter in1 Pt 3:3. This is strictly forbidden in service or indeed the church in main line CAC.


Your beauty should not come from outward adornment, such as braided hair and the wearing of gold jewelry and fine clothes. Instead, it should be that of your inner self, the unfading beauty of gentle and quiet spirit, which is of great worth in God’s sight. For this is the way the holy women of the past who put their hope in God used to make themselves beautiful.


The point being made here is quite clear. Women know when they dress to please themselves and look decent and when they dress to attract men. It has very little to do with what you make up. In any case, the issue of ‘fine clothes’ in the text functions as the hermeneutic key. The opposite of ‘fine clothes’ is ‘ugly clothes’. Should a Christian female wear ‘ugly’ or ‘poor clothes’ simply because fine clothes are condemned by Peter? I personally do not think that it is necessary not make such laws but sometimes they are useful, because without regulations, people run haywire and the body of Christ can be misunderstood. Many other evangelical and pentecostal churches have similar rules.


Soteriological apologetics

I believe that the practices of the CAC towards salvation of the individual are adequate. There is room of course for improvement especially in the field of ordo salutis.  Also certain practices need to be protected from abuse so that it would not be easy to allow people form cults from genuine biblical practices such as laying of hands, hydrotherapy, glossolalia and baptism of the Holy Spirit. Some other practices which are not necessarily important and which may be misunderstood, such as hand bells for worship etc may be eliminated with continued education and synod. Let us now examine the Bible to see if it is true that God still speaks to his people today.







[1] Here we prefer the definition of  I. H. Marshall of Apostles  in which four categories are defined, the widest being all ‘who had seen the risen Lord  and received his command to be missionaries.’ See p. 40.

2 ‘A designation first used widely in the 16th century to refer to the earliest Christian writers not included in the NT canon but closest to them in time, ranging in date from  95 to about 150. D. Hagner, p. 40.

3 ‘Saint John one of the twelve Apostles, traditional author of the fourth gospel, three epistles, and the Revelation. He and St James the Greater were sons of Zebedee; Jesus called them Boanerges, or Sons of Thunder. With Peter, they were closest to Jesus, witnessed the Transfiguration, and were at Gethsemane. Jesus, dying, committed the Virgin Mary to John’s care…  (Died. A.D.c.100). He is variously known as St. John the Evangelist, St John the Divine, and the Beloved Disciple.’ The Concise Columbia Encyclopedia, Electronic.

4 ‘It was he (Christ) who gave some to be apostles, some to be prophets, some to be evangelists, and some to be pastors and teachers, to prepare God’s people for works of service, so that the body of Christ may be built up until we all reach unity in the faith and in the knowledge of the Son of God and become mature, attaining to the whole measure of the fullness of Christ.’ Eph 4:11-13.

5 ‘Now to each one the manifestation of the Spirit is given for the common good. To one there is given through the Spirit the message of wisdom, to another the message of knowledge by means of the same Spirit, to another faith by the same Spirit, to another gifts of healing by that one Spirit, to another miraculous powers, to another prophecy, to another distinguishing between spirits, to another the interpretation of tongues.’ I Cor 12:7-10.

6 ‘Phrygia- ancient region, central Asia Minor (now central Turkey). The Phrygians, apparently Indo-Europeans, entered (c. 1200B.C.) the area from the Balkans. The kingdom of Phrygia (fl. 8th-6th century, B.C.) is associated in Greek legend with Midas and Gordius. Phrygia was later dominated in turn by Lydia, the Gauls, Pergamun, and Rome.’ The Concise Columbia Encyclopedia, 1999, Electronic.

7 A culture-bound medical condition associated with some psychic or psychiatric manifestations, in which the individual speaks in languages foreign to him/her or in language not understood at all. This phenomenon is common in very many pagan rituals and worship. See Yap, 1951.

8 It is difficult determine this historiographically. Since Montanus did not add new doctrine which could not easily be disproved by appeal to the canon, he may have been misunderstood on this. See David Aune, 1987, pp. 77-115 on historiography of NT.

10 It is very possible that the Bishops had already taken the power of forgiveness in the Roman Catholic church by ignoring such passages as Mt 9:6, so that Montanus was only exercising authority in his own church and showing that prophetic gifts qualify to apostolic or pastoral duties in the church, including absolution.

[1]1 This continues to be a problem in modern day charismatic circles. Those with apparent ‘spiritual gifts’ hold positions of authority and are very influential in ordering church activities.

[1]2 Modern charismatics have made similar errors like Montanus made. As a matter of fact, a big denomination was founded on an eschatological error. The Seventh Day Adventist movement which began officially in 1863 (see A. Hoekema, p. 637) was founded only after its prophet William Miller (1782-1849) predicted that Jesus was to come to earth on 22 October 1844 and failed. Ellen White (1827-1915) was considered by the newly formed church to be a prophetess of some sort. She said in 1888, ‘But the appointed time had passed, and the Lord had not appeared. The believers knew that God’s Word could not fail; their interpretation of the prophecy must be at fault,’ p. 347.

[1]3 Tertullian ‘has been characterized both as the “last of the Greek fathers” and as “the first of the Latin fathers.” Both descriptions are appropriate, since he preserves in his work a compendium of mainstream Christianity, while significantly foreshadowing the Latin Church’s preoccupation with power and stressing such legal themes as confession, penance, renunciation and merit’ R. Kearsley, pp. 675-676.

[1]4 John Wesley himself reported  in 1739 “no sooner had he (George Whitfield) begun (in the application of his sermon) to invite all sinners to  believe in Christ, than four persons sank down close to him, almost in the same moment. One of them lay without either sense or motion. A second trembled exceedingly. The third had strong convulsions all over his body, but made no noise unless by groans. The fourth, equally convulsed, called upon God with strong cries and tears. From this time, I trust, we shall all suffer God to carry on His own work in the way that pleaseth Him,’ p. 76.

[1]5 ‘Charismatics- neo-Pentecostal Christians whose worship emphasizes the gifts of the Spirit (charismata) listed by St. Paul in Corinthians, especially healing and speaking in tongues (glossolalia). Contemporary charismatics are distinguished from other Pentecostals by their origins in neo-Pentecostal (especially mainline Protestant and Roman Catholic) churches during the “charismatic renewal” movements of the 1960s.’ The Concise Columbia Encyclopedia, Electronic, 1999.

[1]6 J.W. Ward, pp. 502-505.

[1]7 In Nigeria we have the older Aladura churches which were established along prophetic lines in the early parts of the last century with the Cherubim and Seraphim Society taking the lead in 1925, followed by the Apostolic Church in1930.  The Braide movement of 1916 appeared quite prophetic but lacked the charismatic leanings of the Aladura pentecostal movements of the 1930s.  But the neo-pentecostals and the Aladura do not claim there are only three canonical prophets. While many desire to stick to the Bible in matters of doctrine, others may deviate from it only because of ignorance, or indeed illiteracy. Those who deviate from Biblical teachings deliberately cannot be classified as Christian at all. And there are many.

[1]8 Merkabah mystics trace there origins to the chariot seen by Ezekiel (Ez 1) after his ascent to heaven. ‘Merkabah mysticism in the talmudic period contained the following three elements: (1) an idea of mystical ascent to heaven; (2) Merkabah hymns; and (3) speculation of the Si’ur Qomah type….The technique of ascent had two aspects. First, preparation: For some days prior to the ascent the adept made himself ready by fasting , eating special food, or bathing ….Secondly, there was the ascent itself. This was effected by the recitation of (1) Merkabah hymns or prayers (2) magic formulae; or (3) invocations of God or of the archangels by magical formulae, and invocations have one thing in common: they all involve the rhythmic repetition of certain words, or sounds, or ideas. Given the rigorous preparations for the ascent, the sense of anticipation and the aura of mystery and awe with which the act  was surrounded, this repetition would have been potent enough to have sent the adepts into trance. Its efficacy would have been magnified if, as Hai Gaon asserts, the mystics recited the hymns with their heads between their knees, in the manner of Elijah on Mount Carmel (cf I Kgs 18:42), thus constricting their breathing….According to Hekalot Rabbati the adept was expected to speak during the trance and scribes were placed to write down what he said, for his utterances were taken to be revelations of what was happening in the heavenly world. It is not clear whether any of these utterances have been incorporated directly into the Merkabah texts; it is possible that some of the angelic names and magical formulae are glossolalia.’ P Alexander, 1982, pp.231-234.  Other forms of spirit mysticism are found in Jewish and Christian circles - Bogomil heresy (M. Knibb), Caballa magic (The Concise Columbia Encyclopedia), Calendologia (E Isaacs) and Hirsidism (The Concise Columbia Encyclopedia) but are not as serious as the above.

[1]9 Paul had mentioned that they would cease but the context of his talk makes it likely he is referring to the era of eschatology; ie at the end times. See I Cor 13:8-11.





Alexander, P. 3 (Hebrew Apocalypse of) Enoch (Fifth to Sixth Century AD). In The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Vol. 1. J H. Charlesworth ed. New York: Doubleday, 1982, pp. 223-316.

Andersen F. 2 (Slavonic Apocalypse of ) Enoch (Late First Century AD).In The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Vol. 1. J H. Charlesworth ed. New York: Doubleday, 1982, pp. 91-222.

Aune, David E. The New Testament in its Literary Environment. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 1987.

Eni, Emmanuel, Delivered from the Powers of Darkness. Ibadan: Scripture Union, 1986.

Fuller, Lois. A Missionary Handbook on African Traditional Religion. Nigeria Evangelical  Missionary, Jos: CAPRO, 1994.
Grant, M -The Rise of the Greeks: Phoenix, 1987, p 17.
Grudem W. Systematic Theology, An introduction to Biblical Doctrine, Leicester: IVP, 1994.

Hagner, D.A. Apostolic Fathers. In New Dictionary of Theology. Sinclair B. Ferguson and David F. Wright eds. Leicester: IVP, 1988 p. 40-42.

Hoekema, A. Seventh Day Adventism. In New Dictionary of Theology. Sinclair B. Ferguson and David F. Wright eds. Leicester: IVP, 1988 p. 637.

Isaac, E.  1 (Ethiopic Apocalypse of ) Enoch (2nd Century BC to 1st Century AD)  In The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha. Vol. 1. J H. Charlesworth ed. New York: Doubleday, 1982, pp. 5-90.

Kearsley, R. Tertullian. In New Dictionary of Theology. Sinclair B. Ferguson and David F. Wright eds. Leicester: IVP, 1988 p. 675-677.

Knibbs M.A. Martyrdom and Ascension of Isaiah (Second Century BC- Fourth Century AD). In The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha.  Vol. 2. J H. Charlesworth ed. New York: Doubleday, 1982, pp. 143-176.

Marshall, I.H. Apostle. In New Dictionary of Theology. Sinclair B. Ferguson and David F. Wright eds. Leicester: IVP, 1988 p. 40.

Olusheye, E.H.L. 1983, Saint Joseph Ayo Babalola 1904-1959, The African Foremost Religious Revolutionary leader ever lived. Akure: Christian Overcomers Publishers, 1983.

Ogunranti J.O. Degree Anatomy, a textbook of pure and applied anatomy for degree students. Port Harcourt: University of Port Harcourt Press.

Peel,  J.D.Y. Aladura: A religious movement among the Yoruba. International African Institute/Oxford University Press. 1968.

The Concise Columbia Encyclopedia. BookMan II Model, KJB-1440. Burlington: Franklin Co, 1999.

Ryken Leland, Wilhoit James C Longman III Trempe. Dictorinary of Biblical Imagery. An encyclopedic exploration of the images, symbols, motifs, metaphors, figures of speech and literary patterns of the Bible. Leicester: IVP.

Williams Peter L. Warwick Roger Dyson Mary and Bannister Lawrence H. Gray’s

Anatomy. 37th ed. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1989.

Wesley, John. The Journal of John Wesley.. Chicago: Moody Press, n.d.

Ward, J.W. Pentecostalist Theology. In New Dictionary of Theology. Sinclair B. Ferguson and David F. Wright eds. Leicester: IVP, 1988 p. 502-506.

White, Ellen G. The Great Controversy. 1888. Reprinted  1967. Phoenix: Inspiration Books.

Yap, P.M. Mental diseases peculiar to certain cultures: a survey of comparative psychiatry. Journal of Mental Science 97:313-327, 1951.





[1]The Apostolic Church is a pentecostalist group which grew out of the great Welsh revivals of the first decade of the twentieth century, at which preachers stormed the towns and valleys and thousands of people declared for Christ, and, in the Church’s language, were filled with the Holy Ghost. It has a few hundred branches in the British Isles, mostly in large towns, and concentrated in Scotland, Wales, and northern England. Its headquarters is at Penygroes in Glamorgan, and it has a missionary headquarters at Bradford. It believes in the Baptism of the Holy Ghost, which is outpoured in the last days, and differs from similar churches in its government, which is based on the orders of apostles, prophets, evangelists, and pastors of the New Testament; emphasis is laid on the visionary guidance of the prophetic ministry’, and divine healing is preached and practices, It is, of course, strongly fundamentalist’ Peel J.D.Y 1968 Aladura: A religious movement among the Yoruba. Oxford University Press: International African Institute pg 105.

[2] Peel said of the revivals-‘In July 1930 a meeting took place at Ilesha of Faith Tabernacle delegates to discuss certain matters over which there had been disagreement between Babatope and some others.- particularly the insistence on monogamy and the complete opposition to all medicine. The meeting was attended by Sadare, Akinyele and Odubanjo, as well as other delegates. Joseph Babalola came too. The details of what occurred after he had once more told the story of his call- the healing which burgeoned into the largest mass movement of Yorubaland has seen – are not entirely clear, But by the week-end there were hundreds of people at the hill, Oke Oye, just within the walls of Ilesha town, separated from the rest of the town by a stream, and in those days quite open ground. The revival attracted huge numbers of people from as far away as Ilorin, Ijebu or even across the Niger, and caused serious disruption of transport and food supplies, which brought it to the notice of the authorities.

Before this vast concourse, several times a day, Joseph Babalola, clad in white shorts and shirt, with the Bible and hand bell, preached to the people to renounce evil practices and witchcraft, and bring out for burning all their idols and juju , for God was powerful enough to answer all their needs, and to cure them. Further more, what became a standard practice, he sanctified the near-by stream by prayer, as omi iye, the water of life, as had been revealed to him. A District Officer who attended a meeting noted its purely religious and inoffensive character; it was not dramatic or exciting, and was most impressive when the people raised the water-vessels on their heads for Babalola to bless them. He took no money and the crowds were orderly; the worst confusion was on the roads leading to Ilesha from Ife and Ijebu.’ Ibid, p. 91

[3] E.H.L. Olusheye, 1983, Saint Joseph Ayo Babalola 1904-1959, The African Foremost Religious Revolutionary leader ever lived. Akure: Christian Overcomers Publishers,  pp 33-35.

[4] Peel J.D.Y 1968 Aladura: A religious movement among the Yoruba. Oxford University Press: International African Institute p 102-3.

[5] Ibid, p. 113

[6] Emmanuel Eni was one of the first Christian in Nigeria to expose the importance of white garments in worship and therefore opening up new systematics in Aladuraism in Nigeria and indeed Pentecostalism when he made the following confessions of his own practice when he was in the occult


‘When a man comes to us for an assistance to build a prayer house and help him perform healings etc  he would be given some conditions.


(a) At a certain level of office in the church the person would be INITIATED TO OUR SOCIETY and

(c) NO member would be allowed to come into the prayer house with SHOES ON


Many people when disturbed by evil spirits go to these ‘prophets’ to cast them out. The truth is THEY ONLY ADD MORE DEMONS TO THEM. A DEVIL CANNOT CAST OUT DEVIL. What the prophet would do is, he will pray for the member and then give him/her a red cloth to put in his/her house, and then would advise him/her to always pray with candles and incenses. By this act the person invites us into his/her house. Sometimes the member would be advised to bring goat etc for sacrifice. These sacrifices are for us to continue and help cure the man. The prophet has no power to cure or heal.’ Emmanuel Eni, Delivered from the Powers of Darkness. Ibadan: Scripture Union, p 25. It is cery surprising that this kind of information can be published by a pure evangelical group like the Scripture Union. If the Scripture Union can publish this then it is very likely to be true. Please note the difference between the ‘holy water’ here and the type used in CAC which is not called holy water but ‘living water’ and is provided by the individual himself and prayed upon by the clergy or prophet.

[7] J.W. Ward explains Pentecostalist theology as follows-‘ Pentecostalism is one stream within Arminian evangelicalism with distinctive emphases upon a further experience after conversion, namely, the baptism in the Holy Spirit and an enduement of power signified but speaking in tongues (glossolalia); upon the gifts of the Spirit listed in 1 Cor 12:8-10.

Pentecostal theology has its roots in various aspects of 19th century fundamentalism in American holiness groups which taught that one could receive after conversion an experience of entire sanctification, sometimes called the baptism of the Spirit, and an enduement of power by some key leaders such as Charles Finney, Asa Mahan (1800-89) and Phoebe W. Palmer (1807-87); the teaching of R.A. Torrey (1856-1928) and others who claimed that the baptism of he Spirit was a post-conversion enduement of power primarily for witness and service, not sanctification; the teaching of A.B. Simpson (1843-1919) and A.J. Gordon (1836-95) and others that divine healing was to be received by faith; and the premillenialism and the need to live in expectation of the imminent return of Christ taught by J.N. Darby, C.I. Scofield (1843-1921) and many others. These streams all contributed to the ‘four-square’ emphases of Pentecostal preaching: Christ the Saviour, Christ the baptizer in the Holy Spirit, Christ the healer and Christ the coming King.

Origins and spread

The origins of Pentecostalism may be dated to 1 January 1901, when Miss Agnes Ozman, a student at Bethel Bible College, Topeka, Kansas, spoke in tongues after the principal, Charles Fox Parham (1873-1929), laid hands on her and prayed for her to receive the power of the Spirit. Henceforth, for Pentecostals, the supreme sign of being baptized in the Spirit would be speaking in tongues. This is considered to be the gateway to vivid experience of God, lively worship, the gifts of the Spirit, especially divine healing, and power for Christian witness and service.

Within a few years, Pentecostalism had spread widely in the USA, especially through the influence of the Azusa Street Apostolic Faith Mission in Los Angeles. It soon reached Europe, where there was a ready response to its message among some affected by recent spiritual awakenings in Wales and elsewhere. Pentecostalism gained a strong foothold in Scandinavia and subsequently spread world-wide’ Pentecostalist Theology. New Dictionary of Theology, eds S.B. Ferguson and D.F. Wright, Leiceser: IVP, pp 502-3.

[8] Peel, p 147


This discourse seeks to identify historical factor which may be important in modern understanding of Church history for which lessons can be learnt.  In this case, we speak of the Spirit movements of the 20th century which have their epistemology or basis grounded in the experience of Pentecost in which ‘tongues of fire…separated and came to rest on each of them. All of them were filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak in other tongues as the Spirit enabled them.’ Acts 2:3-4.


Montanism was a movement which began in the 2nd Century AD (156) in the Christian Church that had just been deprived of the presence of the Apostles1 and even the Apostolic fathers,2 and it lasted for 400 years till 550 AD.  The Apostles had all died; the last being John the Gospel writer who may have died about 100 AD3.  Montanus was a convert into the Christian church and in AD 156 he began the movement which now bears his name.  He claimed he was a prophet imbued with gifts of the Holy Spirit as clearly enunciated earlier by Paul in his letter to the Ephesians4 who also inhabited the same Asia Minor of Montanus (i.e. present day Central Anatolian Turkey) and also in the first letter recorded to the Corinthians (I Cor 12)5. Montanus was a former pagan priest of the city of Phrygia6 which was very well known for all sorts of pagan spiritist phenomenology, including prophesying, ecstasy etc.  A pagan priest from Phrygia was known to be able to fast, see visions, dance, suffer a lot of torture and even prophesy.  After the conversion of Montanus, he claimed he was now given the prophetic ability just like the Apostles of old. He was later joined by two women who abandoned their husbands to take part in the new prophetic movement. They were Maximilla and Priscilla. Later the trio formed a new church which spread rapidly all over Asia Minor, Europe and North Africa.  What was said to be normative in the practice of the new church was prophesying in a state of convulsive frenzy. It is not known whether this was accompanied by speaking in tongues (glossolalia)7 or not.


Montanus and his two disciples taught that the world had already come to an end. The age was done and the New Jerusalem clearly predicted to come forth into the earth in Rev 21;2 will soon descend and enter the city of Pepuza.  Hence, faithfuls were advised to proceed to Pepuza in order to await the coming of Jesus Christ. The movement did not disagree with the essential doctrines of the church (eg Christological or soteriological) but held that they could provide new revelation through the three founding prophets (Montanus himself and his two female aids)8. But the movement also emphasised the need for spiritual gifts in the church and a constant need to fast, keep a disciplined life, and  single marriage (no remarriage).  It encouraged faithfuls to desire martyrdom for to do otherwise was sinful. Finally, the group developed a hamartiology of forgiveness of sin- the three founding members could forgive sins and also other members who had developed ‘high spirituality’ and women could hold office in church.[9]  The eschatology of this group was highly profound.


Wile the laity took seriously most of the teachings of Montanus and his groups and this could have led to the rapid spread of the organisation, the church hierarchy frowned at it.  For one, it was usurpation of authority.  If the highly ‘spiritual’ people could forgive sins, what becomes of the bishops who did not manifest any apparent spiritual gifts?10  And of course, when the New Jerusalem did not descend into Pepuza, it was very easy to brand the group as false and demon inspired! In order to safeguard the church against such occurrences in the future, the Church leaders declared a closure of the New Testament canon although there were still controversies as to the genuineness of some of the books of the potential canon.  The church ruled quickly that it was no longer possible after the age of the Apostles for anyone to receive a new canonical revelation from the Holy Spirit. But Montanus argues eloquently from John 16:12f to defend himself

I have much more to say to you, more than you can now bear. But when he, the Spirit of truth, comes, he will guide you  into all truth. He will not speak on his on; he will speak only what he hears, and he will tell you what is yet to come.’ 12-13.


Montanus was saying he was given the power of interpretation and eschatological predictions. The Scriptures says the Spirit will guide to all truth and reveal what is to come (i.e. eschatology). Montanism brought sharply to focus the church’s need to control what the scriptures says and how to interpret and guard against future abuse of scripture or indeed revelation. It led to the closure of the canon and the disbandment of prophecy from the church.

But was Montanism actually evil?  Church leaders believed Montanus to be demon-possessed but can we really verify this? If we appeal to scripture, is it possible to actually come to a conclusion that Montanus was not correctly following the path of the Master albeit with some errors which have been repeated by others in modern times?11 If  Montanus was a false prophet could his organization have been so prolonged long after his death?  If he was still a priest of the pagan worship of Phrygia
, it is very doubtful if he would insist that his members present themselves for Christian martyrdom.  Indeed, if the members found nothing good in him, they will not follow a group that will lead them to their death.  There is no doubt that his prophecy of the imminence of the New Jerusalem came out to be false, but does that make him a fake person or indeed a pagan in Christian clothing? If so, then many dispensationalists today will be also false. At least one very good thing came out of the Montanist movement. Tertullian12 (fl c. 196-212 A.D.), one of the greatest of the Church fathers, was converted through the ministration of the group. He later formed his own group and had considerable influence on the development of early church history. 


Spiritualism and prophetism did not completely die out in the church after Montanus. Sporadic cases were reported in the medieval ages and later in the revivals of John Wesley13 of the 18th century and those of the 19th century awakening in Europe and the Americas. But the main spiritual reawakening came in the form of pentecostalism14 at the turn of the 20th century. This particular movement was not ascribed to anyone. It just happened spontaneously and its history is as follows.

The origins of pentecostalism may be dated to 1 January 1901, when Miss Agnes Ozman, a student at Bethel Bible College, Topeka, Kansas, spoke in tongues after the principal, Charles Fox Parham (1873-1929), laid hands on her and prayed for her to receive the power of the Spirit. Henceforth, for Pentecostals, the supreme sign of being baptized in the Spirit would be speaking in tongues. This is considered to be the gateway to vivid experience of God, lively worship, the gifts of the Spirit, especially divine healing, and power for Christian witness and service.15

This modern wonder, can it have any bearing with Montanist movement of the early church? What is its significance today if it is real as it claims?


It appears the modern spiritualism enterprises and the older montanism seem to have many things in correspondence. One is the gift of prophecy. So many people claim to be prophets today and trace their ability to the gift of the Holy Spirit.16 More importantly, all seem to emphasize the power of prayer to change life situations; a theme which in most cases is absent in orthodoxy and which leads them invariably into deep Arminianism. They are all apocalyptic, messianic, chialistic, and having the flavour of Old Testament prophets like Jeremiah who calls on his people to repent or be doomed and that of John the Baptist (including his charisma) pleading with the people ‘to repent for the kingdom of God is at hand.’ Such have a large propensity to become corrupted just like the root spirit movement in Judaism called Merkabah mysticism17 dating back to several decades before Christ.


While the new spiritual churches are very similar in theology to those of the Montanist, they still have not lasted that long.  We can therefore not say what could become of them.  But one thing is sure. We should always be careful not to condemn what we cannot understand. When God spoke to Samuel, He had been silent for about a period of possibly 400 years. This was why even Eli himself was not too sure who was calling Samuel. The Bible says

In those days the word of the Lord was rare; there were not many visions. I Sam 3:1.

We cannot determine for God when He wishes to pour out His gifts to the church; also we cannot determine when they are to cease.18 But we can determine violation of the Scriptures for the Scripture alone can provide any meaningful revelation of the mind of God for this age and indeed all ages.

See End notes on Montanism

[10] There is considerable evidence to suggest that these gifts did not disappear from the church but were found in different ages within different groups rather than the main line. Even some of these gifts were reported in Wesley’s Methodism in his (Wesley’s) days.

[11] Glossolalia is actually a medical condition which is considered by most psychiatrist to be amongst the so called culture –bound syndrome to which most Pentecostal will refer to as demon possession. An example of culture-bound syndrome (Yap, P.M. Mental diseases peculiar to certain cultures: a survey of comparative psychiatry. Journal of Mental Science 97:313-327, 1951) in Nigeria is Ogbanje, Abiku or Emere (see below). Hence it is clear that it is not all speaking in tongues that is from God. Some are clearly satanic. To the psychiatrist though, all speaking in tongues represent some psychiatric ailment which may be treated as psychoses or mental derangement. Despite its very great systematics and classification, psychiatry still remains a world of mystery which is hardly scientific, its system of treatment non-empirical or not always efficacious by any standard.  Biological psychiatry is beginning to change this posture.

[12] There is nothing wrong in providing office of apostleship to worthy candidates when they demonstrate unusual skills, talents and gifts in the modern church. This was done in the 1st century church after the exit of the original apostles who saw Jesus. At the Didache says this much.

[13] Slaying in spirit as this practice is called has now become the easiest to mimic in satanic worship. See note no 20

[14] Only one thing is wrong with this ordo salutis, -there should be a place for baptism of the Holy Spirit in it. Grudem believes what is being referred to in Mk 1:8 (I baptize you with water, but he will baptize you with the Holy Spirit) on the Baptism of Holy Spirit by Jesus before John the Baptist is sanctification. But several scholars differ in this regard. Conversion in some pentecostal churches is said to be first blessing while baptism of Holy Spirit is referred to as second blessing. But the Apostolic faith insists there are three blessings as follows- 1st conversion, 2nd –sanctification, 3rd- baptism of Holy Spirit with speaking in tongues, all of which are definite experiences.

[15] The Gospel of John was the last to be written.

[16] The word ‘on’ here has a definite significance which only an appeal to Geek religious system can capture its true meaning. It is not just enough to believe Jesus is the son of God - that is what the Greek word, pisteuo translated as believe in English, means.  You must also make him your personal deity and hence the modern version of conversion which talks of accepting Jesus as personal saviour. This is of course not in the Bible but captures the essence of believing ‘on’ Jesus closely. Grant says of the old Greek deities’ But these deities could be savagely dangerous if men and women did not acknowledge them (that is what the Greek term nomizein means – not ‘believe in’) and if they were not placated; this was an anxiety-appeasing religion of formal reciprocity, do ut des, I give you so that you shall give me’ p 17. M Grant -The Rise of the Greeks: Phoenix, p 17.

[17] On water or hydrotherapy one can not but explain that nothing can be smarter than the use of water in the years when the revivals started in Western Nigeria. Firstly it was freely available, cheap, and a medium which make contact with any item. Thus you can sprinkle water on any item, including clothing, use it to cook food, drink it etc. It was a smart article of faith no matter what any one says. In that regard, its function is higher than oil which cannot be used for all items for sanctification, purification anointing etc. But in this age, when everyone questions everything, I prefer to use oil which is well established in the New Testament in order to avoid being misunderstood. (Heb 1:9).

Peel says

‘Turning to sources other than Protestant Bible interpretation is a consequence of asking what is source of the spiritual power they have witnessed. Most people, of course, do not bother to ask this question; of those who do, the more self-conscious Christ Apostolic pastors explain omi iye, for example, as merely an aid to the pure operation of faith in God, while some of the Cherubim and Seraphim, not so affected by European Protestant mental habits, explain it by a more traditional symbolism, or may make scientific comparisons, such as hydropathy’p 142.

[18] See 1 above

[19] Peel, p 146.

[20] Peel, p 147

[21] Some handle the vexed question in evangelical Christianity whether a real Christian can be demon possessed or not by saying Christians cannot be demon possessed in the spirit but the body can become demon infested in certain sicknesses which are of demonic origin or in wearing accursed things or in touching something unclean. The Bible clearly states, and the Christians miss the import of this great text-

‘Do not be yoked together with unbelievers. For what do righteousness and wickedness have in common? Or what fellowship can light have with darkness? What does a believer have in common with an unbeliever? What agreement is there between the temple of God and idols? For we are the temple of the living God. As God has said: “I will live with them and walk among them, and I will be their God, and they will be my people.” “Therefore come out from them and be separate, says the Lord. Touch no unclean thing and I will receive you. I will be a Father to you, and you will be my sons and daughters, says the Lord Almighty.’ 2 Cor 6:14-18.

But Paul continues ‘Since we have these promises, dear friends, let us purify ourselves from everything that contaminate body and spirit, perfecting holiness out of reverence for God.’ 2 Cor 7:1. This text in fact answers those Christians who say you cannot be possessed in the spirit if you are a Christian. It says purify yourself from any contamination of body and spirit. Materials, and people (including sex) which/who are demon infested can pass the demons to non infested people and these could be Christians. The difference is that the Christian has authority and can ask the demons to live but they may not go if materials that attracted them are still around you. But the sinful Christian can of course have demons in both body and spirit.

[22] R Brown (1990). Becoming A vessel of Honor In The Master’s Service, p 231.Springdale: Whitaker House, pp 147-9.Also Rebecca Brown narrates a story of how Christians can become deceived while seeking deliverance and then be demonized. ‘Mary understood that when people knelt before us, or even bowed their heads before us, they were actively submitting themselves to us and accepting whatever we wanted to give them. Of course they thought we were praying for them, but their submission to us gave us the legal right to put demons into them. They also directly opened the door for it by allowing their minds to go blank without testing the spirit knocking them out. Mary showed me the proper incantations to do and how to have the people hold their hands up like this.

‘Then she would tap them first on one hand then on the other, then on their forehead, making the sign of an upside down cross.

‘Out they would go, every time. She then did it to me and I fell over unconscious. I guess I was out for five minutes or so. When I awoke, I found that I had acquired a new demon. Mary told me this special demon would put demons into the people I prayed for. And so he did. I’m sure that isn’t the only way people put demons into people by having them hold their hands like that, but that is how we did it, Ibid, pp 45-6.

[23] Ibid, pp 46-7.

[24] Peel, p 148.

[25] Peel, p 143.

[26] Odubanjo was the first General Secretary of the CAC, a post he had held in the old days of Faith Tabernacle. He therefore remains one of the theoretical pillars of CACism today. He died in1959.

[27] Peel, p 138.

[28] Peel, p 131

[29] Nephilim called and translated “Nephilim” in NIV, NAS, RSV, ASV, but giants in KJV and NKJ. In view of the ideas derived from Judaic literature, “giant” seems to capture the translation well.

[30] ‘The people of this age marry and are given in marriage. But those who are considered worthy of taking part in that age and in the resurrection from the dead will neither marry nor be given in marriage, and they can no longer die; for they are like the angels. They are God’s children, since they are children of the resurrection.’ Lk 24:34-36. This text more than explains itself. First it provides answer as to who are referred to as sons of God in the Gen 6 account. They are angels, and not men as claimed by many. Secondly it talks about the normal, not the abnormal. Angels do not marry, does not mean angels cannot marry. Angels do not disobey God does not mean angels cannot disobey God and many did in the past and will suffer the consequences in the future when according to Peter and Jude ‘And the angels who did not keep their positions of authority but abandoned their own home-these he had kept in darkness, bound with everlasting chains for judgment on the great Day.’ Jude 10 ‘For if God did not spare the angels when they sinned, but sent them to hell, putting them into gloomy dungeons to be held for judgment.’  II Pe 2:4. In any case, this then is function in the Jewish literature which believes that angels came to sleep with daughters of men who gave birth to the Nephilim. The giant Nephilim were wiped out at the time of Noah’s flood. They could not have persisted to any modern age, since only Noah and his descendants survived the flood. The Jewish tradition holds that their spirits were liberated as demons after their death since they were supposed to be partially immortal and are the small or large demons that now populate the sea, dry land, air etc which plague man. In Islamic tradition and literature they are the jinns’ (Surah  46:29-30).

Also the correct translation son of God in the OT is angel. So when it said ‘sons of God’ went into ‘daughter of men’, it simply means angels went into humans. See the following texts.

‘Now there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the LORD, and Satan came also among them.’ Job 1:6.

‘Again there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the LORD, and Satan came also among them to present himself before the LORD, ‘Job 2:1

When the morning stars sang together, and all the sons of God shouted for joy? Job 38:7

[31] ‘For if God did not spare the angels when they sinned, but sent them to hell, putting them into gloomy dungeons to be held for judgment.’ 2 Pe 2:4, interpreted by Jude 6 ‘And the angels who did not keep their positions of authority but abandoned  their own home-these he had kept in darkness, bound with everlasting chains for judgment on the great Day.’ Jude 10.

[32] R Brown (1990). Becoming  A vessel of Honor In The Master’s Service, p 231.Springdale: Whitaker House, p 231.

[33] This interpretation (or indeed translation) is rooted in Jewish apocalyptic literature for the ordinary meaning of Nephilim is “fallen ones”. Therefore there is nothing in the text to suggest they were giants and if so, what proportions they were. With all the Jewish traditions known, it is clear that Nephilim were regarded as giants of some sort and were even compared with the sons of Anak in Num13:32-33. ‘All the people we saw there are of great size. We saw the Nephilim there (the descendants of Anak come from the Nephilim). We seemed like grasshoppers in our own eyes, and we looked the same to them.’

                In describing biblical giants, the authors of Dictionary of Biblical Imagery said ‘The sway that giants have held over the human imagination is in excess of the number of their appearances in the Bible, where a great deal of mystery surrounds the references. We might note at the outset, then that one of their associations is that of mystery-something beyond our ability to fully comprehend. Four Hebrew words are translated as “giant” in various English translations. Nephilim are mysterious preflood beings (Gen 6:4), rendered unforgettable in the evocative statement that “there were giants in the land” (KJV). Anakim were tall pre-Israelite inhabitants of Canaan (Deut 2:10-11, 21;9:2), who in the report of the spies are said to be descendants of the Nephilim (Num 13:33). Rephaim were likewise pre-Israelite inhabitants of Canaan (Deut 2:11; 3:11-13), not necessarily of gigantic proportions. And finally, gibbor is a term used to designate a military hero or strong man, though it is uncertain whether they were gigantic in height and weight. With the possible exception of the Nephilim, who remain shrouded in mystery, all of the biblical giants are oversized humans whose superior size made them feared on the battlefield. The military province of the biblical giant is attested by the way references to them cluster in battle contexts (2 Sam 21:16-22; 1 Chron 20:4-8).’ Ryken, Wilhoit and Longman III, 1998, 328.

[34] ‘Sir Arthur Keith says of Neanderthal man “In size of brain Neanderthal was not a low form. His skill as artisan shows that his abilities were not those of a low order. He had fire at his command. He buried his dead. He had a distinct and highly evolved form of culture. Neanderthal was certainly not a dawn form of humanity.’ Byron C. Nelson, After Its Kind (Mineapolis, Augsburg Publishing House, 1927), 153. ‘At the upper pleistocene H. sapiens neanderthalis apeared from H erectus and is generally recognized as ancient version of modern man. In fact modern man did evolve from neanderthal man, developing modern features from the ancient ones of the upper pleistocene man. Classical Neanderthal features include a large brain size of about 1,600 cc larger than that of modern men; dolichocephalic skulls with projecting occipitals. They also had large brow ridges, their hands were powerful. Neanderthal man was as erect as any modern man today. He was mainly a hunter-gather and he utilized primitive stone tools like the mousterian culture. It is believed that modern man evolved from the central Eurasian mass and moved to the periphery. He presents today as mainly brachycephalic, erect, rounded occipital and frontal bones, small dentition, small jaws, parabolic dental arcade; straight and fully extensive knees and lips, carrying angle for the femur, large anterior condyle of the femur, deep notch between the condyles of the femur, absence of sagittal crest or prognathism, scanty hair on the body, forward looking foramen magnum, highly opposable thumb with adaptations for precision and writing grips. Some of the features listed above are present on fetal apes.’ J.O. Ogunranti, Degree Anatomy, (Port Harcourt University Press, 1985), 234-236. Hence the features of Neanderthal man is similar to those of modern apes, rough and heavy; a feature that easily captures the picture of a caveman. But the features of modern man resemble closely those of fetal or new born ape.

[35] ‘The Neanderthals were responsible for the so-called Mousterian chipped stone culture - a culture that was shared by some Cro -Magnoids, who were indisputably human.’  Wayne Frair and Percival Davis. A Case for Creation. (Chicago, Mood Press, 1967), 125.  ‘Neanderthal Man is everybody’s idea of our caveman ancestors dresses in animal skin, he was nasty, brutish and short. Anatomically he is well known for the many existing skeleton. There is little doubt in most scientists minds that Neanderthal man is a race of Homo sapiens specifically adapted to the ecological conditions of his environment during the period of the last glaciation. Some of these adaptations include such features as a squat body and knobbly joints which facilitated blood flow for the extremities. Classic Neanderthalim were a form of European Eskimo, and they, the last of the line, disappeared about 30,000 years ago. Their fate is uncertain though the general consensus is that they were genetically absorbed into the population of Cro-Magnon people, true Homo sapiens, much as the genes of the Sabines were absorbed in the genetic pool of their Roman conquerors.’ J.R. Napier and P.H. Napier. The Natural History of the Primates. Cambridge University Press: British Museum of Natural History, 1985),185. Although a number of scientist believe Neanderthal man was short, there are no scientific evidences to prove this for most of his skeleton have been obtained from his skull and the long bones have not been well studied.

[36] ‘One evening I decided to have a walk. Along Ebute Metta Bus stop, I saw a young beautiful lady standing. I never spoke a word to her. The next day while passing also I saw her still at the same spot. The third day I saw her still at the same spot and while passing she called me. I stopped and introduced myself to her as Emmanuel Amos but she refused introducing herself. I asked her name and address but she only laughed. She asked me mine and I told her the street ONLY. When I was about leaving, she said she would visit me one day. In my mind I said “that was impossible, I did not tell her my house number how then could she come.” But true to her words, I heard a knock on my door after a week of that meeting at the bus stop. There she was, the mysterious lady! I welcomed her (in my mind. I wondered who this beautiful lady was, and did she know she was threading on dangerous grounds?) I entertained her and she left. After this first visit, her visits became regular without any relationships. I noticed that in her visits she kept to a particular time, and would not come a minute earlier or later! In some of her visits I would take her to the Lagos Barbeach, or to Paramount Hotel or Ambassador Hotel etc. All these while she still did not tell me her name. I decided not to worry since I knew the relationship would not develop more than that. I had already been instructed never to touch a woman.

Suddenly she changed the day visits to nights. During one of the visits she told me – “now it is time for you to visit me.” We stayed together that night and at 8.00a.m. The following day we took off. We joined a bus and she told the driver to stop us at the beach. As we stopped, I asked her “where are we going?” She said, “don’t worry you are going to know my house.” She took me to a corner of the bar beach, used something like a belt and tied around us and immediately a force came from behind and pushed us into the sea. We started flying on the surface of the water and straight to the ocean. Dear reader, these happened in my physical form! At a point we sank into the seabed and to my surprise I saw us walking along an express way. We moved into a city with a lot of people all very busy….

I saw laboratories like science lab, designing lab, and a theatre. At the back of the city, I saw young beautiful girls and handsome young men. No old people. She introduced me to them and I was welcomed. She took me to a place called ‘darkroom’ and a ‘drying room,’ and a ‘packing room’ She then took me to a main factory and warehouse and then came back to her own private mansion. There she sat me down and told me:

“I am the QUEEN OF THE COAST and would like very much to work with you, I promise to give you wealth and all that go with it, protection and all that go with it, life and an ‘angel’ to guide you”. She pressed a button and a tray came out with human flesh (in pieces) in it and we ate it together. She commanded a boa to appear and asked me to swallow it. I could not. She insisted but I could not, how could I swallow a life boa. She then used her powers and I swallowed it. These three covenants: The HUMAN FLESH, and BLOOD, the BOA and the DEMONIC ANGEL were always there to make sure no secret was revealed. But the ‘angel’ was given power to discipline me if I went astray and also to bring me food from the sea anytime I was here on earth. I promised to obey her always.’ Delivered from the Powers of Darkness, Ibadan: Scripture Union Press, pp 16-17.

[37] For those who refuse to believe in witchcraft, its theme is very profound in the Bible. In fact in the days of Moses, it was said ‘Do not allow a sorceress to live’ Ex 22:18. There are several witchcraft practices recorded in the Bible and to summarize they are as follows -Astrology (Is 47:13, Jer 10:2, Rhabdomancy (Ez 21:21, Hos 4:2), Hepatoscopy (Ez 21:21), Necromancy (Lev 19:31, Deu 18:11, Is 8:19, 19:3), Teraphim (Ez 21:21, Zech 10:12), Familiar spirit (speaking with dead- 1 Sam 28:7-11)

[38] Rebecca Brown, p 39.

[39] ‘This is a transliteration of the Heb. Liturgical call hall lu-yah=’praise ye Yah’, the shortened form of Yahweh…which occurs 24 times in the Psalter. Though it is merely one variant of several calls to praise, the fact that with one exception (Ps. 135:3) it is always found at the beginning or end of psalms, and these are all anonymous and so presumably among the later ones, suggests that it had become a standardized call to praise in the post-exilic Temple worship…From the NT (‘Alleluia’, Rev 19:1, 3-4,6) the call has been taken over into Christian worship.’ H.L. Ellison, New Bible Dictionary, 3rd ed. Leicester: IVP,1996  p 441.

Psalms 106:1 Praise ye the LORD (Halleluyah). O give thanks unto the LORD; for he is good: for his mercy endureth for ever. Psalms 111:1 Praise ye the LORD. I will praise the LORD with my whole heart, in the assembly of the upright, and in the congregation. Psalms 112:1 Praise ye the LORD. Blessed is the man that feareth the LORD that delighteth greatly in his commandments. Psalms 113:1 Praise ye the LORD. Praise, O ye servants of the LORD, praise the name of the LORD. Psalms 117:1 O praise the LORD, all ye nations: praise him, all ye people. Psalms 135:1 Praise ye the LORD. Praise ye the name of the LORD; praise him, O ye servants of the LORD. Psalms 146:1 Praise ye the LORD. Praise the LORD, O my soul. Psalms 146:10 The LORD shall reign for ever, even thy God, O Zion, unto all generations. Praise ye the LORD. Psalms 147:1 Praise ye the LORD: for it is good to sing praises unto our God; for it is pleasant; and praise is comely. Psalms 148:1 Praise ye the LORD. Praise ye the LORD from the heavens: praise him in the heights. Revelation 19:1 And after these things I heard a great voice of much people in heaven, saying, Alleluia; Salvation, and glory, and honour, and power, unto the Lord our God.

[40] If an elder or superior man is angry with you and wants to do you evil, go to the farm or wayside where you can secludedly pray at 5.30 o’clock a.m. before sunrise. Read Psalm 38 seven times with Psalm 39. Pronounce the following Holy names as you are reading it,____ for 38 and _________for 39. Fast through the day, and you will know that there is God.’ Peel, p 121.The method which is decidedly magical is performed amazingly with fasting, and even in solitary places just as you do with real prayers. So beware of imitation.

[41] There is a clear distinction in the New Testament about what you ‘need’ which God says he will supply you even without you asking, and those things you want, which you must use your mouth to ask for. The proof texts are as follows

NEED- ‘Therefore I tell you, do not worry about your life, what you will eat or drink; or about your body, what you will wear. Is not life more important than food, and the body more important than clothes? Look at the birds of the air, they do not sow or reap or store away in barns, and yet your heavenly Father feeds them. Are you not much more valuable than they? Who of you by worrying can add a single hour to his life? And why do you worry about clothes? See how the lilies of the field grow. They do not labor or spin. Yet I tell you that not even Solomon was dressed like one of these. If that is how God clothes the grass of the field, which is here today and tomorrow is thrown into the fire, will he not much more clothe you, O you of little faith? So do not worry, saying ‘what shall we eat?’ or ‘what shall we drink?’ or ‘What shall we wear? For the pagans run after these things, and your heavenly father knows that you need them. But seek first the kingdom of God and is righteousness, and all these things will be given to you as well. Therefore do not worry about tomorrow, for tomorrow will worry about itself. Each day has enough trouble of its own.’Mt 6:25-34.

This is the Pauline rendering of the above doctrine  from Jesus ‘My God will meet all your needs according to his glorious riches in Christ Jesus’- Phil 4:19


Matthew 21:22 And all things, whatsoever ye shall ask in prayer, believing, ye shall receive.

John 16:24 Hitherto have ye asked nothing in my name: ask, and ye shall receive, that your joy may be full.

James 4:3 Ye ask, and receive not, because ye ask amiss, that ye may consume it upon your lusts.

1 John 3:22 And whatsoever we ask, we receive of him, because we keep his commandments, and do those things that are pleasing in his sight.

The rules of engagement have been spelt out. You ask for what you want, be holy and believe you will receive and you will receive them. Do not be greedy about what you ask and be patient. What the Bible is silent about is the length of time for asking but it deals with this and the number of times to ask in the parable of the persistent widow.


Some insist it is wrong to ask for your wants but you rather ask for God’s will using, the following text as their proof text ‘And he gave them their request; but sent leanness into their soul’ Ps 106;15.(AV) Now compare with the rendering in NIV ‘So he gave them what they asked for, but sent a wasting disease upon them.’ This anti-want argument is based on the soul factor. It goes like this- if you force God’s hand, then your soul will be lean, which means you will be unable to come as close as possible to God. But the text is not talking about soul but the body and therefore cannot have a cause and effect relationship. That is to say, there can be no relationship between praying to get what you want from God and punishment. nephesh is translated in AV versions as soul, whereas in the present context it should not be translated into a physical thing like body or flesh but soul and hence the rendering of NIV is closer to the meaning of the text than that of AV. But it is not wrong to ask for your wants.


It is a complete   WRONG   to sin when you ask for your wants. If you sin after you have received your wants it will surely disappear. 1 John 3:22 says 'And whatsoever we ask, we receive of him, because we keep his commandments, and do those things that are pleasing in his sight.' STAY AWAY FROM SIN IN ORDER TO RECEIVE YOUR WANTS.

The major reason for his is as follows- sin brings automatically punishment. We all have to answer for our sins because whatever a man sows, he will reap. So if you sleep with someone else's wife, someone else will also sleep with yours or you will get a punishment commensurate with your sin. All sins are of equal soteriological weight before God but not all sins are of equal weight in the level of severity. Thus murder cannot be equated with a simple lie. In the forgiveness of sin for eternal life a sin is a sin , but in the law of karma which is whatever a man sows he shall reap (GAL 6:7 Do not be deceived: God cannot be mocked. A man reaps what he sows), they are not the same. Thus the punishment for killing somebody is not the same with the punishment for a simple lie which does not hurt anyone. EVEN WHEN SINS ARE FORGIVEN SOTERIOLOGICALLY, THEY ARE STILL PUNISHED CRIMINOLOGICALLY!! Hence even if you are forgiven so that you can be washed thoroughly clean with the blood of the Lamb, you will still receive the punishment of your sin here on earth commensurate with its criminological weight! The best example of this is in the Bible is the case of David and his punishment after committing adultery with Uriah's wife (2 Sam 12:15-18).

[42] The Didache tells us that the earliest of Christians after the apostolic era were told to recite the Lord’s prayer three times a day.

[43] These texts are derived from the Old and New Testaments on fasting

2 Samuel 12:16  David therefore besought God for the child; and David fasted, and went in, and lay all night upon the earth.


2 Samuel 12:21  Then said his servants unto him, What thing is this that thou hast done? thou didst fast and weep for the child, while it was alive; but when the child was dead, thou didst rise and eat bread.


2 Samuel 12:23  But now he is dead, wherefore should I fast? can I bring him back again? I shall go to him, but he shall not return to me.


1 Kings 21:9  And she wrote in the letters, saying, Proclaim a fast, and set Naboth on high among the people:


1 Kings 21:12  They proclaimed a fast, and set Naboth on high among the people.


2 Chronicles 20:3  And Jehoshaphat feared, and set himself to seek the LORD, and proclaimed a fast throughout all Judah.


Ezra 8:21  Then I proclaimed a fast there, at the river of Ahava, that we might afflict ourselves before our God, to seek of him a right way for us, and for our little ones, and for all our substance.


Esther 4:16  Go, gather together all the Jews that are present in Shushan, and fast ye for me, and neither eat nor drink three days, night or day: I also and my maidens will fast likewise; and so will I go in unto the king, which is not according to the law: and if I perish, I perish.


Isaiah 58:3  Wherefore have we fasted, say they, and thou seest not? wherefore have we afflicted our soul, and thou takest no knowledge? Behold, in the day of your fast ye find pleasure, and exact all your labours.


Isaiah 58:4  Behold, ye fast for strife and debate, and to smite with the fist of wickedness: ye shall not fast as ye do this day, to make your voice to be heard on high.


Isaiah 58:5  Is it such a fast that I have chosen? a day for a man to afflict his soul? is it to bow down his head as a bulrush, and to spread sackcloth and ashes under him? wilt thou call this a fast, and an acceptable day to the LORD?


Isaiah 58:6  Is not this the fast that I have chosen? to loose the bands of wickedness, to undo the heavy burdens, and to let the oppressed go free, and that ye break every yoke?


Jeremiah 14:12  When they fast, I will not hear their cry; and when they offer burnt offering and an oblation, I will not accept them: but I will consume them by the sword, and by the famine, and by the pestilence.


Jeremiah 36:9  And it came to pass in the fifth year of Jehoiakim the son of Josiah king of Judah, in the ninth month, that they proclaimed a fast before the LORD to all the people in Jerusalem, and to all the people that came from the cities of Judah unto Jerusalem.


Joel 1:14  Sanctify ye a fast, call a solemn assembly, gather the elders and all the inhabitants of the land into the house of the LORD your God, and cry unto the LORD,


Joel 2:15  Blow the trumpet in Zion, sanctify a fast, call a solemn assembly:


Jonah 3:5  So the people of Nineveh believed God, and proclaimed a fast, and put on sackcloth, from the greatest of them even to the least of them.


Zechariah 7:5  Speak unto all the people of the land, and to the priests, saying, When ye fasted and mourned in the fifth and seventh month, even those seventy years, did ye at all fast unto me, even to me?


Zechariah 8:19  Thus saith the LORD of hosts; The fast of the fourth month, and the fast of the fifth, and the fast of the seventh, and the fast of the tenth, shall be to the house of Judah joy and gladness, and cheerful feasts; therefore love the truth and peace.


Matthew 6:16  Moreover when ye fast, be not, as the hypocrites, of a sad countenance: for they disfigure their faces, that they may appear unto men to fast. Verily I say unto you, They have their reward.


Matthew 6:18  That thou appear not unto men to fast, but unto thy Father which is in secret: and thy Father, which seeth in secret, shall reward thee openly.


Matthew 9:14  Then came to him the disciples of John, saying, Why do we and the Pharisees fast oft, but thy disciples fast not?


Matthew 9:15  And Jesus said unto them, Can the children of the bridechamber fast, as long as the bridegroom is with them? but the days will come, when the bridegroom shall be taken from them, and then shall they fast.


Mark 2:18  And the disciples of John and of the Pharisees used to fast: and they come and say unto him, Why do the disciples of John and of the Pharisees fast, but thy disciples fast not?


Mark 2:19  And Jesus said unto them, Can the children of the bridechamber fast, while the bridegroom is with them? as long as they have the bridegroom with them, they cannot fast.


Mark 2:20  But the days will come, when the bridegroom shall be taken away from them, and then shall they fast in those days.


Luke 5:33  And they said unto him, Why do the disciples of John fast often, and make prayers, and likewise the disciples of the Pharisees; but thine eat and drink?


Luke 5:34  And he said unto them, Can ye make the children of the bridechamber fast, while the bridegroom is with them?


Luke 5:35  But the days will come, when the bridegroom shall be taken away from them, and then shall they fast in those days.


Luke 18:12  I fast twice in the week, I give tithes of all that I possess.


[45] What normally kills in a fast medically is the loss of vital and important nutrients which we use daily to give ourselves energy for even the simplest process of the body such as respiration. Energy is stored in complex molecules like starch and glycogen but broken down to simple molecules, such as glucose to provide strength. Such simple molecules are needed in starvation or else, the body will need more energy to break down complex molecules like protein, starch, fat. Hence these latter nutrients are best avoided when breaking a long fast for the energy required to digest the food can kill the individual. Note however that fasting is a natural process of getting rid of accumulated poisons which we invariably take up while we eat which the liver cleanses. But too much food over labours the liver. Abstinence from food gives it a respite very much needed. To therefore say that fasting causes madness or sickness is not true. But everything must be done in moderation. Don’t forget the original manner of eating was hunter-gathering.  A hunter may go without food for days, just like most carnivorous animals before they see their prey.

[46] The story is told of Joanah casting out a demon in less than two seconds of command “You demon get out of this child’ while two exorcists had engaged this demon for well over 5 hours without success.

[47] While long night-day fast may be dangerous, unless you have a specific disease day-only fast can never kill anyone although it may make you loose weight. To avoid losing weight you can take two meals a day during the long day fast – one at 6.00pm and the other before midnight. That way no one will know you have been on fast for long. But again you must consider the Holy Spirit leading  (Lk 2:37).

[48] The is of course no more need to fast for atonement or sin since Jesus has finished that work on the cross.

[49] The Didache ‘was discovered in 1875 at a library in Constantinople but probably dates from the first or second century A.D. …Christians are told to let alms sweat in their hands until they know to whom they are giving (1.6); food offered to idols is forbidden (6.3); people are required to fast before baptism, and baptism must be done in running water (7.1-4); fasting is required on Wednesdays and Fridays but prohibited on Mondays and Thursdays (8.1); Christians are required to pray the Lord’s prayer three times a day (8.3); unbaptized persons are excluded from the Lord’s Supper, and prayers unknown in the New Testament are given as a pattern for celebrating the Lord’ supper (9.1-5); apostles are prohibited from staying in a city more than two days (11.5… prophets who speak in the Spirit cannot be tested or examined (11.7)…salvation requires perfection at the last time (16.2)’ p 67. Grudem W. Systemic Theology. An introduction to Biblical Doctrine. Leicester: IVP, p 67.